Introduction of Bai Xian Pi:Dittany Root-bark or Cortex Dictamni.
✵The article gives records of the herb Dittany Root-bark, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., one usable plant species, ②.Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet., and the botanical source of the herb Burning Bush, ③.Dictamnus albus., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Dittany Root-bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Cortex Dictamni(Dittany Root-bark).
Pin Yin Name: Bái Xiān Pí.
English Name: Dittany Root-bark.
Latin Name: Cortex Dictamni.
Property and flavor: cold, bitter, salty.
Brief introduction: The Herb Cortex Dictamni is the dried root-bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., used internally or externally for skin diseases with excessive secretion and itching. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Dictamni, Dittany Root-bark, Bái Xiān Pí.
Botanical source: The herb Cortex Dictamni(Dittany Root-bark) is the dried root-bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., it is a plant of the Dictamnus L. genus, the Rutaceae family (rue family) of the Sapindales order.
Common herbal classics of China defined the herb Cortex Dictamni, or Densefruit Pittany Root-bark (Bai Xian Pi) as cortex or root peel of the Rutaceae family plant species (1). Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., or (2). Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet. The official herbal classics only defined the botanical source as the (1). Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Other common herbal classics defined the herb Burning Bush as from botanical origin species (3). Dictamnus albus. These 3 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.
Botanical description: Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue family) and Dictamnus L genus, it is commonly known as Dictamnus dasycarpus, or Densefruit Pittany, or Bai Xian. A perennial herb, the base is woody, and the plant grows up to 1 meter. The whole plant has a specific scent. Roots are fleshy, with many lateral roots, and the bark is yellow white to tawny (yellow brown). Pinnately compound leaves of odd numbers are alternate; rachis has narrow wings, no petiole; leaflets (lobules) 9~13, the leaf blade is oval (egg-shaped) to elliptic, 3.5~9 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed, the base is cuneate, the margin is serrulate, the upper surface is dark green, densely covered with glandular dots, the under surface is white green, glandular dots are sparse.
Racemes are terminal, up to 30 cm long, floral axis and pedicel are covered with white pubescence and black glandular hairs; pedicel (flower stalk) is 1~2.5 cm long, the base has 1 linear bract; 5 sepals, ovate-lanceolate, about 5 mm long, about 2 mm wide, base close up; 5 petals, light red with prunosus lines, oblanceolate or oblong, about 25 mm long, 5~7 mm wide, base gradually narrowing to petiole-shape: 10 stamens; the ovary is superior, 5-loculed.
Capsularfruit, densely covered with glandular hairs, 5-lobed when mature, each flap having a needle point. Seeds 2~3 grains, subsphaeroidal, about 3 mm in diameter, the apex is mucronate, black, and shiny. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is in June.
Ecological environment: Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., grows on earth slopes, bushes, sandy soils, forest margins, and low shrublands on sandy soils, hilly slopes, flatland shrubs or grasslands, or under sparse forests, or on limestone mountains. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Ganjiang River area, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the northwest area, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: Dictamnus dasycarpus prefers a warm and humid climate, its adaptability is strong, resistant to cold, afraid of drought, afraid of waterlogging, and afraid of strong light.
Characters of herbs: The root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz is in a coiling block shape, 5~15 cm long, 1~2 cm in diameter, and a thickness of 2~5 mm. The outer surface is ash gray (grayish-white) or ravous (pale gray-yellow), with fine vertical wrinkles and radicula marks, often with protruding granular dots; The inner surface is off-white with fine vertical lines. The texture of the herb is brittle, stive and dust is flying when it is broken, the fracture surface is uneven, slightly layered, stripped off the outer layer, and small flashing bright spots are visible in lights. The herb has a mutton odor smell, and the taste is slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has a large strip, thick, gray white surface, and the fracture surface is layered.
Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibition to various pathogenic fungi in the test tube; ②.anti-inflammatory; ③.antipyretic; ④.anti-cancer; ⑤.contractive uterine smooth muscle effect.
Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and drying dampness, dispersing pathogenic wind and stop itching, and detoxify. It is indicated for heat dampness carbuncle ulcer, measles due to wind-heat and damp toxin, yellow water dripping, eczema, rubella, scabies and sores, rheumatic pyretic arthralgia, jaundice, jaundice and red urine.
Administration of Cortex Dictamni (Bái Xiān Pí):
Administration Guide of Cortex Dictamni (Bái Xiān Pí)
①.Internally:4.5~9 grams,Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction,or prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick; ②.Internally: water decoction, 2~5 qian (about 6~15 grams),Externally:wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction,6~15 grams,prepared to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction or prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.
(2).Dictamnus angustifolius G.Don ex Sweet.
Botanical description: Dictamnus angustifolius G.Don ex Sweet., is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue family) and Dictamnus L genus, it is commonly known as Dictamnus angustifolius, or Narrow-Leaf Dictamnus, or Xia Ye Bai Xian, Tuo Er Bu Ti, and so on. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 30-80 cm high. Stems are upright, mostly branched from the base, covered with dense long fluff, the lower part is smooth and sometimes with short hairs, fragrant. Pinnately compound leaves of odd numbers are alternate; rachis has hairs, the base is not winged; petiolule is very short; 7~15 leaflets (lobules), oblong or oblong oval, 5~10 cm long, 2~3 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is broadly cuneate or obtuse, the margin is serrulate, curl downward, the upper surface is smooth, sparse white hairs grow along the leaf veins on the under surface.
Racemes grow on the top end of the stem, densely covered with glandular hairs and hazel hairs; bracts are linear-lanceolate, densely covered with dust-color (darkish brown) glandular hairs; 5 sepals, lanceolate-linear, 7~9 mm long, the apex is pointed, densely covered with glandular hairs; corolla is lanceolate or oblong, 2~4.5 cm, pale pink, with puce (purple-brown) hairs, the apex is pointed or blunt, the base is gradually shrank into a claw-shape; 10 stamens, separated, filaments are all hairy; the ovary is superior, with sparse white hair, style is smooth.
Capsularfruit, densely covered with glandular hairs, and fine hairs, 5-lobed when mature, each lobe has a needle point. Seeds 2~3 grains, subsphaeroidal, black, glossy. Its flowering period is from May to July, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological environment: Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet., grows in mountain bushes and under forests, sunny mountain slopes. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in Xinjiang, mainly in the Yili and Altai regions. It is also distributed in other areas of Central Asia.
Botanical description: Dictamnus albus is also known as Burning Bush, a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue family) and Dictamnus L genus, "medicinal parts are the dried and occasionally the fresh leaves, the fresh or dried root, and the fresh or dried root rind.", the herb bear other names such like "Fraxinella, Dittany, Gas Plant, Diptam", the Burning Bush flowers are terminal racemes and pink with dark veins. They are large and irregular, with 5 sepals and 5 petals. There are 2 bracteoles that are slightly zygomorphous. The 10 stamens are long, threadlike, and bent forward. The ovaries have 5 capels fused at the base of a short gynophore. The fruit is a capsularfruit that bursts open into mericarps ejecting the seeds. The plant is a perennial herb, 0.5~1.5 meters high. Numerous upright, unbranched and sticky-glandular-haired shoots grow from the root. The leaves are alternate, odd, 7~11 pinnate, and transparently punctuated with oil glands. The plant has a strong lemon or cinnamon fragrance. The oil is easily inflammable.
Ecological environment: Dictamnus albus(Burning Bush)., grows in mountain bushes and under forests, and on sunny slopes. Geographical distribution: This species is indigenous to Central Europe and parts of Asia, and is cultivated in the northern USA (the United States of America).
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1.Introduction of Bai Xian Pi:Dittany Root-bark or Cortex Dictamni.