Introduction of Hu Zhang:Giant Knotweed Rhizome or Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Giant Knotweed Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Giant Knotweed Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati(Giant Knotweed Rhizome).

dried deep yellowish herb slices of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati Pin Yin Name: Hǔ Zhànɡ.
 English Name: Giant Knotweed Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati is the dried rhizome of giant or japanese knotweed, Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc., used (1).to clear heat, counteract toxins, and promote bile flow in cases of hepatitis, jaundice, dysentery, bladder damp-heat, and lung heat with cough, (2).to activate blood and remove stasis for treating amenorrhea and traumatic injuries, and (3).externally for burns and venomous snake-bite. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, Giant Knotweed Rhizome, Hǔ Zhànɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (Giant Knotweed Rhizome) is the dried rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc., it is a plant of the Fallopia Genus, the Polygonaceae family (smartweed or buckwheat family) of the Caryophyllales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc.

 a flowering plant of Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc. with whitish small flower spikes and green leaves Botanical description: Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc is a plant of the Polygonaceae family (smartweed or buckwheat family) and Fallopia genus, it is also known as Polygonum reynoutria Makino. (P. reynoutria Makino.). A perennial shrubby herb, the plant grows up to 1 meter high. Roots are procumbent underground, ligneous (woody), tawny (yellow brown), and nodes are conspicuous. Stems are upright, tufted, glabrous, and hollow, with scattered prunus (violet red) spots. Leaves are alternate; petioles are short; stipule sheath is membranous, brown, caducous; leaf blades are broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, 6~12 cm long, 5~9 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed, the base is rounded or cuneate, entire, glabrous.

 Flowers are unisexual, dioecious, and form axillary panicles; the pedicel is thin and long, the middle part has joints, and the upper part has wings; the perianth is 5-parted, lobes are in 2 whorls, 3 lobes in the out layer whorl are enlarged in fruit phase, grow out wings on the back; the male flower has 8 stamens; the female flower has 3 styles, and stigma is capitate.

 a shrub of Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc. grow in field Achenes are elliptic, have 3 edges, black brown. Its flowering period is from June to August, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant Polygonum cuspidatum grows on stream sides in the mountain valley, or on the riversides. It is distributed in the eastern, middle south, southwest, northern areas and upper reaches of the Yellow River, in China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Polygonum cuspidatum prefers a mild and humid climate, it is tolerant to cold and water logging. Likewise, its soil requirements are not strict, but it grows better in loose and fertile soil.

 several yellowish herb slices of Giant Knotweed Rhizome in a pile Characters of herbs: The rhizome is cylindrical, mostly cylindrical short segment or irregular thick slice, has branches, varying in length, some are as long as 30 cm, 0.5~2.5 cm in diameter, and slightly enlarged at nodes. The surface is tan (chocolate brown) to taupe brown, has conspicuous vertical wrinkles, fibrous roots and punctate marks of fibrous roots, there are bud marks and sheath scales on the branch top and nodes. The internode length is 2~3 cm. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface is yellowish-brown and fibrous, the cortex is easy to separate from the xylem (wood part), the cortex is thin, and the xylem (wood part) accounts for the major part, radial, with pith in the center or hollows, there is transeptae in the longitudinal section, the herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter, and puckery.

 The herb of a better grade is thickset, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, and the fracture surface is yellow.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antibacterial effect in vitro and has an inhibitory effect on a variety of viruses; ②.hypotensive effect and slows down the heart rate; ③.resveratrol glycoside (polydatin) has the effect of lowering blood lipid, protecting the liver, and dilating capillary; ④.increase the cardiac output and pulse pressure; ⑤.resist platelet aggregation and TXB2 production; ⑥.resveratrol has a strong inhibitory effect on the trichophyton rubrum, trichophyton interdigitalis that cause stubborn dermatitis, sweet scar tinea; ⑦.anti-tumor, hypoglycemia, sedation, hemostasis, diuresis, leukogenic effect(increase white blood cells).

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate dampness, disperse stasis and analgesic, break blood stasis, activate blood circulation and dissipate stasis, dispel the wind and free channels, relieve cough and reduce phlegm, detoxify. It is indicated for arthralgia and pain or numbness, rheumatic arthralgia and myalgia(aching of tendons and bones), jaundice with damp-heat pathogen, stranguria with turbid discharge, morbid leukorrhea, menischesis, menorrhalgia, postpartum lochia, abdominal mass, abdominal mass and gathering, hemorrhoids bleeding, water and fire burns, fall injury, carbuncle swelling and sore poisoning, cough with excessive phlegm, nasty sore and tinea, venomous snake bite, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (Hǔ Zhànɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (Hǔ Zhànɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare to water decoction or ointment and smear stick; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder, burned to ashed and apply powder, prepare to paste and smear, or soaking with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, or infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick, or apply stick with concentrated decoction liquid, or prepare paste to smear.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should not be used during pregnancy.




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