Introduction of Quan Shen:Bistort Rhizome or Rhizoma Bistortae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Bistort Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonum bistorta L., another usable plant species, ②.Polygonum manshuriense V. Petr.ex Kom., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Bistort Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Bistortae(Bistort Rhizome).

Bistort Rhizome:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Quán Shēn.
 English Name: Bistort Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Bistortae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, puckery.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Bistortae is the dried rhizome of Polygonum bistorta L.(family Polygonaceae), used (1).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating dysentery, boils and sores, (2).to arrest bleeding for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and (3)externally for treating snake-bite. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Bistortae, Bistort Rhizome, Quán Shēn.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Bistortae(Bistort Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1).Polygonum bistorta L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Bistortae(Bistort Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of species (1). Polygonum bistorta L., (2). Polygonum manshuriense V. Petr.ex Kom. They are plants of the Polygonum Genus, Polygonaceae family, Caryophyllale order. This 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Polygonum bistorta L.

 Polygonum bistorta L.:flowers Botanical description: It is commonly known as Quán Shēn, or Fist-Ginseng, perennial herb. Rhizomes hypertrophic, 1~3 cm in diameter, curved, dark brown. Stem erect, 50~90 cm tall, unbranched, glabrous, usually 2~3 stems from the rhizome. Basal leaves lanceolate or narrowly ovate, papery, 4~18 cm long, 2~5 cm wide; Apical acuminate or acute, base truncate or subcordate, trailing to wing along petiole, both surfaces glabrous or pubescent below, margin curvaceous, slightly undulate, petiole 10~20 cm long; Cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, sessile; Stipules tubular, membranous, lower green, upper brown, apex oblique, dehiscent to middle, not hairy. Racemes spicate, terminal, 4~9 cm long, 0.8~1.2 cm in diameter, compact; Bracts ovate, apical acuminate, membranous, pale brown, midrib conspicuous, each bract containing 3~4 flowers; Pedicels slender, spreading, 5~7 mm long, longer than bracts; Tepals 5-lobed, white or reddish, tepals elliptic, 2~3 mm long; 8 stamens, 3 styles, stigma capitate. Achene elliptic, apex at both ends, brown, lustrous, ca. 3.5 mm long, slightly longer than persistent perianth. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from August to September.

 Polygonum bistorta L.:flowering plantsEcological environment: The plant grows in the wild grass or the wet place. It distributes in Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Shanxi, Xinjiang, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cool climate, cold and drought tolerance. It is advisable to plant in a sunny field, on sandy soil, or calcareous loam with good drainage.

 Bistort Rhizome:herb photo 02 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is a flat cylindrical or flat strip, curved into a shrimp shape, some of which are bent to a roll, with slightly pointed ends or tapered ends, with a length of 4~15 cm and a diameter of 1~2.5 cm. The surface is purple-brown or purple-black, slightly coarse and rough, with dense ring nodes and residual fibrous roots or root marks, with one side raised and the other side flat or slightly grooved. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is nearly kidney-shaped, light brown-red, and the vascular bundles are yellow-white dots on the fracture surface, arranged in intermittent rings. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes bitter and puckery. The herb which is thick and big, texture is hard, and the fracture surface is light reddish-brown is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hemostatic effect; ②.antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli in vitro; ③.effect on hemostasis and anti-inflammation.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and detoxification, clearing heat and relieving convulsion, clearing heat and remove dampness through diuresis, detumescence(reduce swelling), cooling blood and hemostasis, detoxification, and dissipate stagnation. It is indicated for red dysentery(dysentery characterized by blood in the stool), pyretic diarrhea, fever and convulsions, lung heat and cough, fever and convulsions, carbuncles, scrofula, sores of the mouth and tongue, hematemesis, epistasis(nose bleeding), haemorrhoid bleeding, tetanus, carbuncles and swelling, sores ulcer, scrofula, snake bites, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Bistortae(Quán Shēn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Bistortae(Quán Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams.Externally:proper amount;②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick, mouth wash or wash with water decoction;③.Internally:water decoction, 3~12 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or mouthwash,fumigation wash with water decoction.

(2).Polygonum manshuriense V. Petr. ex Kom.

 Polygonum manshuriense V. Petr. ex Kom.:flower Botanical description: It is commonly known as Ear-Leaf Polygonum, or ěr Yè Liǎo. Perennial herb, 60~80 cm tall. Rhizome short and stout, subtuberous, 3 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, black. Stem simple, unbranched, erect, smooth, with 8~9 nodes, slightly more sparse. Leaf-sheath rusty, membranous, tubular, longer, apex oblique, upper part of stem pale green; Basal leaves with long stalk, ca. 15 cm long; Leaf blade grassy, oblong or lanceolate, ca. 15 cm long, ca. 2~3 cm wide, base cuneate, apex acuminate, entire or microwave, apex of veins inconspicuously raised, abaxially gray-blue, glabrous, leaf blade subpersistent to stalk; Stem middle and upper leaves sessile, triangular-lanceolate, size amplitude varies greatly, base clasps stem, leaf is ear shape.

 Polygonum manshuriense V. Petr. ex Kom.:flowering plants Spikelets simple, terminal, cylindrical, 4~7.5 cm long, bracts brown, membranous, elliptic or oblong, slightly caudate acute; Perianth 5-lobed, pink or white, 8 stamens, 3 styles, slender, nutty, ovate-triangular, ca. 3 mm long, pointed, light brown, glossy. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from August to September.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on a hillside or in the grass, it mainly distributes in the north area of China.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.
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