Introduction of Xiao Hui Xiang:Fennel Fruit or Fructus Foeniculi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fennel Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Foeniculum vulgare Mill., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Fennel Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Foeniculi(Fennel Fruit).

Fructus Foeniculi Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.
 English Name: Fennel Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Foeniculi.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Foeniculi is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., used to dispel cold, regulate the Qi flow and relieve pain for treating cold pain in the lower abdomen, and distending pain in the testis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Foeniculi, Fennel Fruit, Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Foeniculi(Fennel Fruit) is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., it is a plant of the Foeniculum Mill. Genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

 Foeniculum vulgare Mill.:drawing of plant flower fruit Botanical description: The Foeniculum vulgare Mill., is a plant of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) and Foeniculum Mill genus, it is commonly known as "Bitter fennel, Carosella, common fennel, finocchio, Florence fennel, garden fennel, large fennel, sweet fennel, wild fennel, xiao hui xiang, etc.", a perennial plant, 0.4~2 meters high. With a strong aroma. Stems are upright, smooth glabrous, gray-green or pale, spreading on upper branches with fine longitudinal grooves. Stem leaves are alternate; the lower part of the stem leaves petiole length is 5~15 cm, middle or upper leaves petiole or all sheath-like, sheath edge is membranous; leaf profile is wide triangle, about 30 cm, width 40 cm, Four to five back feather splits; the last back lobes are filamentous, 0.5~5 cm long, 0.5~1 cm wide. Complex umbels are terminal or lateral, diameter 3~15 cm; small umbels with flowers 14~30 flowers, stems are slender, unequal in length, length is 0.3~1.2 cm; flowers are small, non-calyx teeth; petals are yellow, Obovate or nearly obovate, yellowish, ca. 1.5 mm, width 1 mm, medial to middle, apex is dimpled; 5 stamens, filaments are slightly longer than petals, anthers are oval, yellowish, 2-loculed, style basal conic, style is very short, outwardly spreading or appressed on style base. Cremocarp is oval, length is 3.5~6 mm, width is 1.5~2 mm, sharp; each groove has 1 tubing, 2 co-production tubing, endosperm is ventral straight or slightly concave. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Collect seeds in summer and let the plant wither naturally in winter. Harvest seeds when mature and brown, but before they drop; check for aphids. Morning hours for harvest are best to avoid unnecessary seed losses.

 Foeniculum vulgare Mill.:flowering plant with a honey bee Varieties of fennel: F. vulgare Rubrum (bronze fennel) has beautiful, dark reddish bronze foliage. It makes a striking accent in gardens. F. vulgare azoricum (Florence fennel or finacchio; sometimes listed as var. dulce, incorrectly called sweet anise, and sold as anise in supermarkets) has thickened leaf bases that form a bulbous base called the bulb, which is eaten raw or cooked. Finocchio grows like a stalk of celery and is eaten raw or boiled as a vegetable. Florence fennel needs cool weather to develop its bulb, so sow seeds in midsummer for a fall harvest. Plants grown from a spring sowing may bolt in warm summer weather before forming the bulb. Plants benefit from frequent fertilization and watering. Cut off flower heads to encourage the development of a thicker base. Once the bulb is about egg size, it can be hilled up with soil to blanch. It will be ready to harvest in a few weeks.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated all over China. Resource distribution: The plant is native to the Mediterranean area. It prefers moist cool climate, salt tolerance, strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict, but to choose flat terrain, fertile loose, good drainage sand loam or light alkaline black soil is appropriate.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Foeniculum vulgare prefers a wet and cool climate, salt-resistance, strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict, but to choose flat, fertile, and loose, good drainage sandy loam or light alkaline black soil is appropriate. The previous crop better chooses corn, sorghum, buckwheat, and beans.

 Fennel Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is a cremocarp, cylindrical shape, slightly pointed ends and sometimes slightly bent, 4~8 mm in length and 1.5~2.5 mm in diameter. The surface is yellow-green to brown, smooth and glabrous, with a yellowish-brown protruding stylopodium at the top, sometimes with tiny fruit stalks at the base, long oval mericarps, raised back, 5 vertical straight edges, the joint surface is flat and wide, dark inner color, there are longitudinal grooved lines. The cross-section is nearly pentagonal, and the four sides of the back are about equal in length. The herb has a special fragrance, and the taste is slightly sweet and pungent. The herb of better grade has big and full grains, yellow-green, with strong odor and tastes.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.volatile oil can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and secretion, can eliminate intestinal gas, stomach-strengthening effect, it has the effect of expectorant and analgesia, and can inhibit the production of aflatoxin; ②.anisole in the volatile oil is used as a leukocyte raising medicine in the treatment of cancer and long-term exposure to radiation, hypoleucocyte caused by medicine or unknown causes, and has obtained good curative effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warm the kidney and liver, disperse cold and relieve pain, promoting the circulation of Qi and relieve pain, regulating Qi and harmonizing stomach. It is indicated for cold hernia abdominal pain, testis partial drop, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain during menses), cold pain in the lower abdomen, epigastric cold pain, abdominal distension pain, poor appetite vomiting and diarrhea, hypochondriac pain, kidney deficiency and low back pain, testicular hydrocele. Salt prepared fennel could warm the kidney, dispel cold and relieve pain, it is indicated for cold hernia and abdominal pain, testis partial drop, cold menses and abdominal pain, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Foeniculi (Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Foeniculi (Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~6 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder,or fried hot and iron warmly.

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