Introduction of Xiao Hui Xiang:Fennel Fruit or Fructus Foeniculi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fennel Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Foeniculum vulgare Mill., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Fennel Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Foeniculi(Fennel Fruit).

a pile of pale green Fructus Foeniculi Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.
 English Name: Fennel Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Foeniculi.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Foeniculi is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., used to dispel cold, regulate the Qi flow and relieve pain for treating cold pain in the lower abdomen, and distending pain in the testis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Foeniculi, Fennel Fruit, Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Foeniculi (Fennel Fruit) is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., it is a plant of the Foeniculum Mill. Genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

 a colorful drawing of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,plant flowers and fruit Botanical description: Foeniculum vulgare Mill is a plant of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) and Foeniculum Mill genus, it is commonly known as Huí Xiānɡ, Common fennel, Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ, etc. A perennial plant, the plant grows up to 0.4~2 meters high. The plant has a strong aroma. Stems are upright, smooth and glabrous, celadon (sage green or grayish green) or pale asphyxia, the upper branches spread out, and the surface has fine longitudinal grooves. Cauline leaves are alternate; petioles are 5~15 cm longer than the petioles of lower cauline leaves, the stalk part or whole leaf in the middle and upper part are sheathed, sheath edge is membranous; leaf blades are wide triangular, about 30 cm long, about 40 cm wide, 4~5-pinnatisect; the final lobes are filamentose, 0.5~5 cm long, 0.5~1 cm wide.

 Compound umbels (composite umbels) are apical or lateral, 3~15 cm in diameter, peduncles are up to 25 cm long; have no general involucre and involucel (involucellum); 6~30 spokes, 1.5~10 cm long; umbellule (umbellet) has 14~30 flowers, flower stalk is slender, unequal length, 0.3~1.2 cm long; flowers are small, has no calyx teeth; flower petals are yellow, obovate or nearly obovate, primrose yellow (pale yellow), about 1.5 mm long, about 1 mm wide, involute above the middle part, the apex is retuse (slightly emarginated); 5 stamens, filaments are slightly longer than flower petals, anthers are oval (egg-shaped), pale yellow, longitudinal split; the ovary is inferior, 2-loculed, stylopodium is conical, style is very short, outwardly diverging or appressed on a stylopodium.

 flowering plant of Foeniculum vulgare Mill with many small yellow flowers and a honey bee Cremocarp is oblong, 3.5~6 mm long, 1.5~2 mm wide, 5 main ridges, and spiculate (pointed); each groove has 1 vitta (oil duct), 2 vittae (oil ducts) on the connotation, and the ventral surface of endosperm is straight or slightly concave. Its flowering period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Ecological environment: Foeniculum vulgare Mill is cultivated all over China. The plant is native to the Mediterranean area. It prefers a moist cool climate, salt tolerance, and strong adaptability, and the soil requirements are not strict, but to choose flat terrain, fertile loose, good drainage sand loam, or light alkaline black soil is appropriate.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Foeniculum vulgare prefers a moist and cool climate, it is tolerant of salt and has strong adaptability. Its soil requirements are not strict, but it is better to choose a flat field with fertile and loose sandy loam or light alkaline black soil with good drainage for cultivation. The proceding crop better chooses corn, sorghum, buckwheat, and beans.

 Collect seeds in the summer and let the plant wither naturally in the winter. Seeds should be harvested when mature and brown, but before they drop, check for aphids. Morning hours are best to avoid unnecessary seed loss.

 many pale green and light brownish Fennel Fruits are piled together Characters of herbs: The herb is a cremocarp, thin and cylindrical; both ends are slightly pointed and sometimes slightly bent, 4~8 mm long, and 1.5~2.5 mm in diameter. The surface is greenish yellow to brown, smooth and glabrous, with conical yellowish-brown stylopodium at the top; sometimes it has small carpopodiums (fruit stalks) at the base; mericarps are oblong oval, back is protuberant, it has 5 vertical ridges, the connotation is flat, the center is dark, there are vertical grooves. The cross-section (transverse section) is nearly pentagonal, and the four sides of the back are approximately equal in length. The herb has a special fragrance, and the taste is slightly sweet and pungent. The herb of a better grade has big and full grains, is greenish yellow, and has a strong fragrance and a strong taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.volatile oil can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and secretion, can eliminate intestinal gas, stomach-strengthening effect, it has the effect of expectorant and analgesia, and can inhibit the production of aflatoxin; ②.anisole in the volatile oil is used as a leukocyte raising medicine in the treatment of cancer and long-term exposure to radiation, hypoleucocyte caused by medicine or unknown causes, and has obtained good curative effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warm the kidney and liver, disperse cold and relieve pain, promoting the circulation of Qi and relieve pain, regulating Qi and harmonizing stomach. It is indicated for cold hernia abdominal pain, testis partial drop, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain during menses), cold pain in the lower abdomen, epigastric cold pain, abdominal distension pain, poor appetite vomiting and diarrhea, hypochondriac pain, kidney deficiency and low back pain, testicular hydrocele. Salt prepared fennel could warm the kidney, dispel cold and relieve pain, it is indicated for cold hernia and abdominal pain, testis partial drop, cold menses and abdominal pain, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Foeniculi (Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Foeniculi (Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~6 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder,or fried hot and iron warmly.




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