Introduction of Xiao Hui Xiang:Fennel Fruit or Fructus Foeniculi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs: also known as interior-warming herbs, an agent or substance herbs that warms the interior and expels internal cold, also known as cold-expelling herbs.

 
Fructus Foeniculi(Fennel Fruit).

Fructus Foeniculi Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.
 English Name: Fennel Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Foeniculi.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Foeniculi is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.(family Umbelliferae), used to dispel cold, regulate the Qi flow and relieve pain for treating cold pain in the lower abdomen, and distending pain in the testis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Foeniculi, Fennel Fruit, Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Foeniculi(Fennel Fruit) is the dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., it is a plant of the Foeniculum Mill. Genus, the Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales order.

(1).Foeniculum vulgare Mill.


 Foeniculum vulgare Mill.:drawing of plant flower fruit Botanical description: The Foeniculum vulgare Mill., is a plant of the Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) family and Foeniculum Mill genus, it is commonly known as "Bitter fennel, Carosella, common fennel, finocchio, Florence fennel, garden fennel, large fennel, sweet fennel, wild fennel, xiao hui xiang, etc.", a perennial plant, 0.4~2 meters high. With a strong aroma. Stems erect, smooth glabrous, gray-green or pale, spreading on upper branches with fine longitudinal grooves. Stem leaves alternate; the lower part of the stem leaves petiole length 5~15 cm, middle or upper leaves petiole or all sheath-like, sheath edge membranous; leaf profile main country wide triangle, about 30 cm, width 40 cm, Four to five back feather splits; the last back lobes filamentous, 0.5~5 cm long, 0.5~1 cm wide. Complex umbels terminal or lateral, diameter 3~15 cm; small umbels with flowers 14~30 flowers, stems slender, unequal length, length 0.3~1.2 cm; flowers small, non-calyx teeth; petals yellow, Obovate or nearly obovate, yellowish, ca. 1.5 mm, width 1 mm, medial to middle, apex dimpled; 5 stamens, filaments slightly longer than petals, anthers oval, yellowish, 2-loculed, style basal conic, style very short, outwardly spreading or appressed on style base. Double hanging fruit oval, length 3.5~6 mm, width 1.5~2 mm, sharp; each groove has 1 tubing, 2 co-production tubing, endosperm ventral straight or slightly concave. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Collect seeds in summer and let the plant die back naturally in winter. Harvest seeds when mature and brown, but before they drop; check for aphids. Morning hours for harvest are best to avoid unnecessary seed losses.

 Foeniculum vulgare Mill.:flowering plant with a honey bee Varieties of fennel: F. vulgare Rubrum (bronze fennel) has beautiful, dark reddish bronze foliage. It makes a striking accent in gardens. F. vulgare azoricum (Florence fennel or finacchio; sometimes listed as var. dulce, incorrectly called sweet anise, and sold as anise in supermarkets) has thickened leaf bases that form a bulbous base called the bulb, which is eaten raw or cooked. Finocchio grows like a stalk of celery and is eaten raw or boiled as a vegetable. Florence fennel needs cool weather to develop its bulb, so sow seeds in midsummer for a fall harvest. Plants grown from a spring sowing may bolt in warm summer weather before forming the bulb. Plants benefit from frequent fertilization and watering. Cut off flower heads to encourage the development of a thicker base. Once the bulb is about egg size, it can be hilled up with soil to blanch. It will be ready to harvest in a few weeks.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated all over China. Resource distribution: The plant is native to the Mediterranean area. It prefers moist cool climate, salt tolerance, strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict, but to choose flat terrain, fertile loose, good drainage sand loam or light alkaline black soil is appropriate.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Foeniculum vulgare prefers a wet and cool climate, salt-resistance, strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict, but to choose flat, fertile, and loose, good drainage sandy loam or light alkaline black soil is appropriate. The previous crop better chooses corn, sorghum, buckwheat, and beans.

 Fennel Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: Fruit bicuspid cylindrical, slightly pointed at both ends, sometimes slightly curved, 4~8 mm long, 1.5~2.5 mm in diameter; Surface yellowish-green to brown, smooth and glabrous, apex with conical brilliant brown stylopodium, sometimes with small stalks at base, minute fruit elliptic, abaxially raised, with 5 straight longitudinal edges, jointed surface flat, darker, with longitudinal groove. The cross-section is nearly pentagonal and the four sides of the back are about the same length. Smells specific and aromatic, slightly sweet and pungent taste. The herb with grain, big full, yellow-green, smell thick is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.volatile oil can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and secretion, can eliminate intestinal gas, stomach-strengthening effect, it has the effect of expectorant and analgesia, and can inhibit the production of aflatoxin; ②.anisole in the volatile oil is used as a leukocyte raising medicine in the treatment of cancer and long-term exposure to radiation, hypoleucocyte caused by medicine or unknown causes, and has obtained good curative effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warm the kidney and liver, disperse cold and relieve pain, promoting the circulation of Qi and relieve pain, regulating Qi and harmonizing stomach. It is indicated for cold hernia abdominal pain, testis partial drop, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain during menses), cold pain in the lower abdomen, epigastric cold pain, abdominal distension pain, poor appetite vomiting and diarrhea, hypochondriac pain, kidney deficiency and low back pain, testicular hydrocele. Salt prepared fennel could warm the kidney, dispel cold and relieve pain, it is indicated for cold hernia and abdominal pain, testis partial drop, cold menses and abdominal pain, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Foeniculi(Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Foeniculi(Xiǎo Huí Xiānɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder,or fried hot and iron warmly(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xiao Hui Xiang:Fennel Fruit or Fructus Foeniculi.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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