Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.
✵The article gives records of the herb Rice Bean, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., ②.Phaseolus angularis Wight., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Rice Bean, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean).
Pin Yin Name: Chì Xiǎo Dòu.
English Name: Rice Bean.
Latin Name: Semen Phaseoli.
Property and flavor: slightly cool, sour, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Semen Phaseoli is the dried ripe seed of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.Or Phaseolus angularis Wight, used to induce diuresis, counteract toxins and promote the drainage of pus in cases of boils, sores and abscesses. The herb is commonly known as Semen Phaseoli, Rice Bean, Chì Xiǎo Dòu.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Phaseoli (Rice Bean) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., or (2). Phaseolus angularis Wight. They are plants of the Vigna genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Fabales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.
Botanical description: Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is also known as Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi et Ohashi., or Dolichos umbellatus Thunb., it is commonly known as Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb, Rice Bean, Small Red Bean, Chi Xiao Dou. An annual semi-climbing herb. Stems are slender, as long as 1 meter or up to about 1.8 meters long, and densely covered with anatropous hairs. Trifoliolate leaves; petioles are 8~16 cm long; stipules (peraphyllum) are lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; 3 lobules (folioles), lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, 6~10 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is wide triangular, broadly cuneate or orbicular, entire or slightly 3-lobed, both surfaces are glabrous or sparsely piliferous, chartaceous (papery); lobules are stipitate, ternate vein (trinervious).
Racemes are axillary, many flowerlets, pedicels are very short; 2 bracteoles, lanceolate-linear, about 5 mm long, piliferous; calyx is short campanulate, 5 calyx teeth; corolla is papilionaceous, yellow, vexilla is reniform, emarginate, base is cordate, alae (winged stem) is obliquely ovate, base has narrowing claws, tropis (keel pelals) is long and narrow, has angular protrusions; 10 stamens, disomic, anther is small; ovary is superior, densely covered with short hirsute, style is linear.
Legumes (pods) are linear-flat cylinder (linear flat cylindrical), pendulous, 6~10 cm long, 5 mm wide, and glabrous. 6~10 seeds, oblong, usually dark purple or dark red, sometimes brown, black, or yellow, 3~3.5 mm in diameter, both ends are blunt, has straight and sunken hilum. Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and southwest areas. It is widely cultivated all over the south of China. The plant was native to tropical Asia, it is planted in Southeast Asian countries and also cultivated in other areas of East Asia.
Growth characteristics: The plant Phaseolus calcaratus is strong in adaptability, it can be planted in general farmland. The sunny fields, loose soil, and medium fertility (overmuch fertilizer easily lead to spindly growth, fewer pods) are appropriate, better avoid continuous cropping. The requirement for soil is not strict, resistant to slim, clay, but can be cultivated in the sand, also on roads in valleys and basins, mountains. It is not only tolerant to watering, but also tolerant to drought, short growth periods, and simple cultivation techniques, and can be used as a replanting crop.
Characters of herbs: The seed is cylindrical and slightly flat, or oblong and slightly flat, two ends are slightly truncated or blunt, 5~7 mm or 5~8 mm long, and 3-5 mm in diameter. The surface is purplish-red or dark reddish-brown, smooth, slightly shiny or lacklustre (dull); There is a hilum with a linear protrusion on one side, lean to one end, is white, about 2/3 length of the seed, and the center is sunken into a longitudinal groove; There is an inconspicuous ridge on the other side. The texture of the seed is hard and not easily broken; After cutting, the seed coat is thin and crisp, 2 cotyledons, cream white (milky white), and hypertrophic, and the radicle is thin and long, bent to one end. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes slightly sweet, there are bean fishy tastes when it is chewed. The herb of better grade has full grains and dark prunus (dark violet red).
Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi; ②.inhibit the activity of trypsin and human sperm acrosomal enzymes.
Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence (reduce swelling), alleviate water retention and eliminate dampness, removing jaundice, detoxification and apocenosis, harmonize the blood and apocenosis, reduce swelling and detoxification, clear heat and detoxification, eliminate carbuncle. It is indicated for swelling of edema, beriberi and limb swelling, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, diarrhea and dysentery, hemafecia (bloody stool), gonorrhea, wind-damp pyretic arthralgia, carbuncle sore poison, acute appendicitis and abdominal pain, scall and tinea.
Administration of Semen Phaseoli (Chì Xiǎo Dòu):
Administration Guide of Semen Phaseoli (Chì Xiǎo Dòu)
①.Internally: 9~30 grams.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams), or prepare to powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, or prepared to powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick,or wash with water decoction.
Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should forbidden using the herb Semen Phaseoli in a hundred days after snake bite.
(2).Phaseolus angularis Wight.
Botanical description: Phaseolus angularis Wight is a plant of the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) and Vigna genus, it is also known as Phaseolus angularis (Willd.) W.F. Wight., Dolichos angularis Willd., or Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi et Ohashi., it is commonly known as Phaseolus angularis, Rice Bean, Red Bean, Chi Dou, etc. An annual straight herb, it grows upright or is twining, grows up to 30~90 cm tall, and stems have white long hirsute. Trifoliolate leaves; stipules (peraphyllum) are lanceolate, covered with white long pilose, small stipels (stipellum) are linear; petioles are up to 20 cm long, covered with sparse long pilose; apical lobules (folioles) are oval (egg-shaped), lateral lobules are orthorhombic ovate, 5~10 cm long, 3.5~7 cm wide, apex is mucronate or acuminate, base is triangular or orbicular, entire or slightly 3-lobed, both surfaces are covered with sparse long pilose; petiolules are very short; 3 basal veins.
2~6 flowers, flowers insert on the top of axillary peduncle, yellow; bracteoles are linear, longer than calyx; the calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), 5 dentate lobed, calyx teeth are triangular; vexilla are disc-shaped (oblate form) or sub-reniform, often slightly oblique, the tip is concave, alae (winged stem) is wider than tropis (keel pelals), has a short claw and ear, the top of the tropis is bent and nearly half rolled, one of the tropis has corniform protrusions in the middle and lower parts, the base has a claw; 10 stamens, disomic and divided into 9 and 1; ovary is linear, style is curved, near apex part is piliferous.
Legumes (pods) are cylinder (cylindrical) and slightly flat, seeds are contractive at maturity, and contains 6~10 seeds. Seeds are elliptic, both ends are truncated or round, dirty red (dark red), and the hilum is white, not concave. Its flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological environment: The plant is widely cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is widely cultivated throughout the north and south areas of China. It is also introduced to the America continent and Africa.
Characters of herbs: The seed is short cylindrical or nearly rectangular-circular and slightly flat, with truncate or blunt ends, 4~6 mm in diameter, the surface is dark brown-red and luster, and no protruding hilum. The main difference from the red bean seed is that the hilum is flat but not protruding, and the center is not sunken. The herb of better grade has full grains and dark prunus (dark violet red).
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1.Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.