Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rice Bean, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., ②.Phaseolus angularis Wight., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Rice Bean, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean).

Semen Phaseoli:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chì Xiǎo Dòu.
 English Name: Rice Bean.
 Latin Name: Semen Phaseoli.
 Property and flavor: slightly cool, sour, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Phaseoli is the dried ripe seed of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.Or Phaseolus angularis Wight, used to induce diuresis, counteract toxins and promote the drainage of pus in cases of boils, sores and abscesses. The herb is commonly known as Semen Phaseoli, Rice Bean, Chì Xiǎo Dòu.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Phaseoli (Rice Bean) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., or (2). Phaseolus angularis Wight. They are plants of the Vigna genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Fabales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:growing plants with pods Botanical description: The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb", "Rice Bean", "Small Red Bean", "Chi Xiao Dou", Annual herb. Stalks are slender, as long as 1 meter or more, yellow villous when young, hairless when old. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules peltate, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 10~15 mm long, acuminate at both ends; stipules subulate, leaflets are papery, ovate or velvety needle-shaped, 10~13 cm long, broad 2~5~7.5 cm, apex is pointed, base is broadly cuneate or obtuse, entire or slightly 3-lobed, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, basally veined 3 articles. Racemes are axillary, short, with 2~3 flowers; bracts are lanceolate; pedicels are short, glands adnate; flowers are yellow, ca. 1.8 cm, width 1.2 cm; keelbone right angle shaped appendages. Capsularfruit is linear-cylindrical, pendulous, 6~10 cm long, 5 mm wide, glabrous, 6~10 seeds, oblong, usually dark red, sometimes brown, black or yellow, 3~3.5 mm in diameter, umbilical depression. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 One-year climbing herb. Stem length is up to 1.8 meters, densely inverted hair. Stipules are lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; 3 leaflets, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 6~10 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, entire or 3 shallow cracks, no hair on both sides, only sparse hairs on veins, paper, veins 3 out.

 Racemes are axillary, flowers are numerous, pedicel is very short; 2 sorghum, lanceolate, hairy; calyx is short bell, 5 carious; corolla is butterfly, yellow, flag reniform, top central dimples, base is cordate, winged-ovate-oblique, basally with narrowed claws, keelbone narrow, corneous; 10 stamens, both body, anthers are small; ovary is superior, densely hirsute, style is linear.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:flowering plant Capsularfruit is linear-cylindrical; seeds 6~10, dry seeds are slightly cylindrical and slightly flat, 5~7 mm long, 3 mm in diameter, testa russet or purple-brown, slightly glossy, umbilicus linear, white, about 2/3 of the full length, the middle depression into a longitudinal groove, biased to one end, the back of a not obvious ridge. Hard, remove the seed coat, visible two white milk in the kernel. Chewing bean flavor. It is better to dry, full of particles and dark red. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Growth habit: The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., has strong adaptability. The requirement for soil is not strict, resistance to slim, clay, sand can be cultivated, also on road in valley and basin, mountain. It is not only tolerant to watering, but also tolerant to drought, early to plant and mature early, short growth period, simple cultivation techniques, and can be used as a replanting crop.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is distributed in the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River. It is widely cultivated all over the south. The plant was native to tropical Asia, it is planted in Southeast Asian countries, also cultivated in other areas of East Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Phaseolus calcaratus is strong in adaptability, it can be planted in general farmland. The sunny, loose soil, medium fertility (fertilizer easy to grow, less pod) is good, unfavorable continuous cropping.

 Rice Bean:herb photo Characters of herbs: the seed is cylindrical and slightly flat, or oblong and slightly flat, with slightly truncated or blunt ends, 5~7 mm or 5~8 mm in length and 3-5 mm in diameter. The surface is purplish-red or dark reddish-brown, smooth, slightly shiny or dull; There is a hilum with a linear protrusion on one side, inclined to one end, is white, about 2/3 of the length of the seed, and the center is sunken into a longitudinal groove; There is an inconspicuous ridge on the other side. The texture of the seed is hard and not easily broken; After cutting, the seed coat is thin and brittle, with 2 cotyledons, milky white and thick, and the radicle is slender and bent to one end. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet, there are bean fishy tastes when chewed. The herb of better grade has full grains and dark purple color.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi; ②.inhibit the activity of trypsin and human sperm acrosomal enzymes.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence (reduce swelling), alleviate water retention and eliminate dampness, removing jaundice, detoxification and apocenosis, harmonize the blood and apocenosis, reduce swelling and detoxification, clear heat and detoxification, eliminate carbuncle. It is indicated for swelling of edema, beriberi and limb swelling, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, diarrhea and dysentery, hemafecia (bloody stool), gonorrhea, wind-damp pyretic arthralgia, carbuncle sore poison, acute appendicitis and abdominal pain, scall and tinea.

 Administration of Semen Phaseoli (Chì Xiǎo Dòu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Phaseoli (Chì Xiǎo Dòu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~30 grams.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams), or prepare to powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, or prepared to powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick,or wash with water decoction.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should forbidden using the herb Semen Phaseoli in a hundred days after snake bite.

(2).Phaseolus angularis Wight.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:growing plant with pods Botanical description: The Phaseolus angularis Wight., is a plant of the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus angularis", "Rice Bean", "Red Bean", "Chi Dou", annual, upright or entangled with herbs. 30~90 cm tall, plants are sparsely hairy. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules are peltate, arrow-shaped, 0.9~1.7 cm long; leaflets are ovate to ovate-ovate, 5~10 cm long, 5~8 cm wide, apex is broadly triangular or near rounded, laterally skewed, entire or shallowly trifid, slightly sparsely hairy on both sides.

 Flowers are yellow, ca. 5 or 6-flowered on short pedicel apex; pedicel is extremely short; bracteoles are lanceolate, 6-8 mm long; calyx is campanulate, 3~4 mm long; corolla is ca. 9 mm long, flag petal is oblong or subrenal, often slightly oblique, apical concave, wing valve is wider than the keel, with a short petiole and ear, the top of the keel is bent nearly half a circle, one of the middle and lower parts has a convex horn, the base petiole stalks; ovary is linear, style is curved, hairy near apex.

 Capsularfruit is terete, 5~8 cm long, 5~6 mm wide, spreading or curved, glabrous; seeds are usually dark red or other colors, oblong, 5~6 mm long, 4~5 mm wide, both ends cut flat or nearly round, no umbilical sag. Its flowering period is in summer, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is widely cultivated throughout north and south of China. It is also introduced to the America continent and Africa.

 Characters of herbs: the seed is short cylindrical or nearly rectangular and slightly flat, with truncated or blunt ends, 4~6 mm in diameter, the surface is dark brown-red and luster, and no protruding hilum. The main difference from red bean seed is that the hilum is flat but not protruding, and the center is not sunken. The herb of better grade has full grains and dark purple color.
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