Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rice Bean, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., ②.Phaseolus angularis Wight., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Rice Bean, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean).

Semen Phaseoli:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chì Xiǎo Dòu.
 English Name: Rice Bean.
 Latin Name: Semen Phaseoli.
 Property and flavor: slightly cool, sour, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Phaseoli is the dried ripe seed of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.Or Phaseolus angularis Wight(family Leguminosae), used to induce diuresis, counteract toxins and promote the drainage of pus in cases of boils, sores and abscesses. The herb is commonly known as Semen Phaseoli, Rice Bean, Chì Xiǎo Dòu.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., or (2). Phaseolus angularis Wight. They are plants of the Vigna genus, the Fabaceae family of the Fabales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:growing plants with pods Botanical description: The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb", "Rice Bean", "Small Red Bean", "Chi Xiao Dou", Annual herb. Stalks are slender, as long as 1 meter or more, yellow villous when young, hairless when old. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules peltate, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 10~15 mm long, acuminate at both ends; stipules subulate, leaflets papery, ovate or velvety Needle-shaped, 10~13 cm long, broad 2~5~7.5 cm, apex acute, base broadly cuneate or obtuse, entire or slightly 3-lobed, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, basally veined 3 articles. Racemes axillary, short, with 2~3 flowers; bracts lanceolate; pedicels short, glands adnate; flowers yellow, ca. 1.8 cm, width 1.2 cm; keelbone right angle shaped appendages. Capsule linear-cylindrical, pendulous, 6~10 cm long, 5 mm wide, glabrous, 6~10 seeds, oblong, usually dark red, sometimes brown, black or yellow, 3~3.5 mm in diameter, umbilical depression. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 One-year climbing herb. Stem length up to 1.8 meters, densely inverted hair. Stipules lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; 3 leaflets, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 6~10 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, entire or 3 Shallow cracks, no hair on both sides, only sparse hairs on veins, paper, veins 3 out.

 Racemes axillary, flowers numerous, pedicel very short; 2 sorghum, lanceolate, hairy; calyx short bell, 5 carious; corolla butterfly, yellow, flag reniform, top central dimples, base cordate, winged-ovate-oblique, basally with narrowed claws, keelbone narrow, horny; 10 stamens, both body, anthers small; ovary superior, densely hirsute, style linear.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:flowering plant Capsules linear-cylindrical; seeds 6~10, dry seeds slightly cylindrical and slightly flat, 5~7 mm long, 3 mm in diameter, testa russet or purple-brown, slightly glossy, umbilicus linear, white, about 2/3 of the full length, the middle depression into a longitudinal groove, biased to one end, the back of a not obvious ridge. Hard, remove the seed coat, visible two white milk in the kernel. Chewing bean flavor. It is better to dry, full of particles and dark red. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Growth habit:The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., has strong adaptability. The requirement for soil is not strict, resistance to slim, clay, sand can be cultivated, also on road in valley and basin, mountain. It is not only tolerant to watering, but also tolerant to drought, early to plant and ripe early, short growth period, simple cultivation techniques, and can be used as a replanting crop.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant distributes in the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River. It is widely cultivated all over the south. The plant was native to tropical Asia, it is planted in Southeast Asian countries, also cultivated in other areas of East Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Phaseolus calcaratus is strong in adaptability, it can be planted in general farmland. The sunny, loose soil, medium fertility (fertilizer easy to grow, less pod) is good, unfavorable continuous cropping.

 Rice Bean:herb photo Characters of herbs: the seed is cylindrical and slightly flat, or oblong and slightly flat, with slightly truncated or blunt ends, 5~7 mm or 5~8 mm in length and 3-5 mm in diameter. The surface is purplish-red or dark reddish-brown, smooth, slightly shiny or dull; There is a hilum with a linear protrusion on one side, inclined to one end, is white, about 2/3 of the length of the seed, and the center is sunken into a longitudinal groove; There is an inconspicuous ridge on the other side. The texture of the seed is hard and not easily broken; After cutting, the seed coat is thin and brittle, with 2 cotyledons, milky white and thick, and the radicle is slender and bent to one end. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet, there are bean fishy tastes when chewed.The herb of better grade has full grains and dark purple color.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi; ②.inhibit the activity of trypsin and human sperm acrosomal enzymes.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence(reduce swelling), alleviate water retention and eliminate dampness, removing jaundice, detoxification and apocenosis, harmonize the blood and apocenosis, reduce swelling and detoxification, clear heat and detoxification, eliminate carbuncle. It is indicated for swelling of edema, beriberi and limb swelling, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, diarrhea and dysentery, hemafecia(bloody stool), gonorrhea, wind-damp pyretic arthralgia, carbuncle sore poison, acute appendicitis and abdominal pain, scall and tinea.

 Administration of Semen Phaseoli(Chì Xiǎo Dòu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Phaseoli(Chì Xiǎo Dòu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~30 grams.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang(about 9~30 grams), or prepare to powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick;③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, or prepared to powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick,or wash with water decoction.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should forbidden using the herb Semen Phaseoli in a hundred days after snake bite.

(2).Phaseolus angularis Wight.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:growing plant with pods Botanical description: The Phaseolus angularis Wight., is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus angularis", "Rice Bean", "Red Bean", "Chi Dou", annual, erect or entangled with herbs. 30~90 cm tall, plants are sparsely hairy. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules peltate, arrow-shaped, 0.9~1.7 cm long; leaflets ovate to ovate-ovate, 5~10 cm long, 5~8 cm wide, apex broadly triangular or near rounded, laterally skewed, entire or shallowly trifid, slightly sparsely hairy on both sides.

 Flowers yellow, ca. 5 or 6-flowered on short pedicel apex; pedicel extremely short; bracteoles lanceolate, 6-8 mm long; calyx campanulate, 3~4 mm long; corolla ca. 9 mm long, flag Petal oblong or subrenal, often slightly oblique, apical concave, wing valve wider than the keel, with a short petiole and ear, the top of the keel is bent nearly half a circle, one of the middle and lower parts has a convex horn, the base Petiole stalks; ovary linear, style curved, hairy near apex.

 Capsule terete, 5~8 cm long, 5~6 mm wide, spreading or curved, glabrous; seeds usually dark red or other colors, oblong, 5~6 mm long, 4~5 mm wide, both ends cut flat or nearly round, no umbilical sag. Its flowering period is in summer, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is widely cultivated throughout north and south of China. It is also introduced to the America continent and Africa.

 Characters of herbs: the seed is short cylindrical or nearly rectangular and slightly flat, with truncated or blunt ends, 4~6 mm in diameter, the surface is dark brown-red and luster, and no protruding hilum. The main difference from red bean seed is that the hilum is flat but not protruding, and the center is not sunken.The herb of better grade has full grains and dark purple color.
Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.
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