Introduction of Sang Zhi:Mulberry Twig or Ramulus Mori.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Mulberry Twig, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Morus alba L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Mulberry Twig, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Ramulus Mori(Mulberry Twig).

dried herb slices and segments of Mulberry Twig Pin Yin Name: Sānɡ Zhī.
 English Name: Mulberry Twig.
 Latin Name: Ramulus Mori.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Ramulus Mori is the dried young twig of Morus alba L., used as an antirheumatic for treating arthralgia and shoulder pain.

 Botanical source: The herb Ramulus Mori (Mulberry Twig) is the dried young twig of Morus alba L., it is a plant of the Morus genus, the Moraceae family (mulberry, or fig family) of the Rosales order. The herb is commonly known as Ramulus Mori, Mulberry Twig, Sānɡ Zhī. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Morus alba L.

 fruiting tree of Morus alba L with red purple mature mulberry fruits Botanical description: Morus alba L is commonly known as Mulberry Tree, White Mulberry or Sang Shu. The plant is a deciduous shrub or small tree, the tree grows up to 3~15 meters high. The bark is grey-white, with stripe lobes, and the root bark is yellowish-brown or reddish-yellow, strong fibrous. Simple leaves are alternate, the petioles are 1~2.5 cm long; the leaf blades are ovate to broad-ovate, 5~20 cm long, and 4~10 cm wide, the apex is sharp pointed or acuminate, the base is circular or nearly cordate, edges are coarsely serrate or crenate, sometimes have irregular lobes, the upper surface is glabrous, glossy; there are short hairs on the veins of the under surface, piliferous in the leaf axil, 3 veins from the base cross veinlet and form reticulated lines, obvious on the under surface; stipule is lanceolate, caducous.

 fruiting tree of Morus alba L with several mature mulberry fruits Flowers are unisexual (separate), and dioecious; male inflorescence and female inflorescence arrange in spicate catkin, axillary; female inflorescence is 1~2 cm long, pilose, the peduncle is 5~10 mm long; male inflorescence is 1~2.5 cm long, cernuous (pendulous), slightly covered by fine hairs; the staminate flower has 4 perianth lobes, 4 stamens, there is a sterile stamen in the center; pistillate flower has 4 perianth lobes, base connate, stigma is 2-lobed.

 Achenes are numerous and densely clustered into ovoid or oblong aggregate fruit, 1~2.5 cm long, green at the initial stage, when mature it gradually turns to pulpose, black purple or red. The seed is small. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from May to June.

 Ecological environment: Mulberry trees grow on mountain slopes, in hills and field around village, field, and mostly are cultivated. The tree is distributed in most areas of China, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

 Growth characteristics: Mulberry trees prefer a warm and moist climate, slightly resistant to shade. It starts to seedling when the temperature is over 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit), suitable temperature for plant growth is 25~30 °C (Celsius, or 77~86 degrees Fahrenheit), growth is inhibited when the temperature is over 40 °C (Celsius, or 104 degrees Fahrenheit), growth is stopped when the temperature is lower than 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The mulberry tree is tolerant to drought, tolerant to aridity, and not tolerant to water logging. It has a strong adaptability to the soil.

 dried herb slices of Mulberry Twig in a pile Characters of herbs: The fresh shoots and twigs are long cylindrical, few branched, different in lengths, and 0.5~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is sallow (grayish yellow) or tawny (yellowish brown), with many tawny punctate lenticels and fine longitudinal striations, grayish-white slightly semicircular leaf marks, and yellowish brown axillary buds. The texture of the herb is firm and tough, not easily broken; the fracture surface is fibrous. The slice is 0.2~0.5 cm thick, the cortex or bark is thin, the xylem (wood part) is yellowish white, the rays are radial, and the pith is white or yellowish white. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes mild.

 The herb of a better grade is fresh and tender, the fracture surface is yellowish white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory; ②.anti-hypertensive effects; ③.remarkable effect on nourishing the hair of rabbits and sheep; ④.morin has diuretic, spasmolysis, anti-pathogen effects, and shows strong anticancer activity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, free meridian and channels, benefit joint, prompt water and Qi circulation. It is indicated for numbness and pain of the shoulder, arm, joint, wind-cold and arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, limb muscular constricture, apoplexia(paralytic stroke) and hemiplegia, beriberi and edema, edema, pruritus of body and muscle.

 Administration of Ramulus Mori (Sānɡ Zhī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Ramulus Mori (Sānɡ Zhī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams),or prepare to paste.Externally:fumigation wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 15~30 grams.Externally:proper amount,fumigation wash with water decoction.




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  • 1.Introduction of Sang Zhi:Mulberry Twig or Ramulus Mori.

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