Introduction of Luo Shi Teng:Chinese Starjasmine Stem or Caulis Trachelospermi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese Starjasmine Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Chinese Starjasmine Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Caulis Trachelospermi(Chinese Starjasmine Stem).

dried herb segments and leaves of Chinese Starjasmine Stem in a pile Pin Yin Name: Luò Shí Ténɡ.
 English Name: Chinese Starjasmine Stem.
 Latin Name: Caulis Trachelospermi.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Trachelospermi is the dried stem with the leaf of Trachelospermum jasminoides(Lindl.) Lem., used to dispel wind-damp, unblock the meridians, cool the blood and reduce swelling in the treatment of rheumatalgia of the joints with muscular contracture, as well as a sore throat. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Trachelospermi, Chinese Starjasmine Stem, Luò Shí Ténɡ.

 Botanical source: Famous herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Trachelospermi (Chinese Starjasmine Stem) as the dried stem with the leaf of (1). Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. It is a plant of the Trachelospermum Lem. Genus, Apocynaceae family (dogbane family), Gentianales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.

 plants of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem. with many green leaves grow near the wall Botanical description: The plant, Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem is also known as Rhynchospermum jasminoides Lindl., commonly known as Luò Shí or Chinese Starjasmine, the herb is commonly known as Luò Shí Ténɡ or Chinese Starjasmine Stem. An evergreen woody vine, the plant grows up to 10 meters long, and the whole plant has latex; the stem is cylindrical, lenticellate (has lenticels); young shoots and twigs are yellow pilose, gradually turn glabrescent when old. Leaves are opposite, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or broadly obovate, 2~10 cm long, 1~4.5 cm wide; the upper surface is glabrous, the undersurface is sparsely pubescent, 6~12 lateral veins on each side.

 Cymes are terminal or axillary, dichotomous, the flowers are white and fragrant; pedicels are 2~5 cm long, pilose, glabrous when old; bracts and bracteoles are narrowly lanceolate, 1~2 mm long; the calyx is deeply 5-parted, lobes are linear-lanceolate, reflexed at the tip, 2~5 mm long, outside is villous and the margin is piliferous, inside is glabrous, the base has 10 scaly glands; the tip of flower bud is obtuse, corolla tube is terete, the middle part is swollen, outer is glabrous, the inner surface is pubescent at the throat and stamen apex, 5~10 mm long, 5 corolla lobes, 5~10 mm long, glabrous, overlaid rightwards; 5 stamens, insert in the middle of corolla tube, ventral part adnate to stigma, anthers are arrow-shaped, the base has ears, hide inside flower throat; floral disc (flower disc) is annular 5-lobed, as long as ovary; the ovary is composed of 2 free carpels, glabrous, style is terete, stigma is ovoid, the apex is entire; each carpel has more than one ovule, resting on two simultaneous lateral membranes.

 plants of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem crawling on stone surface Follicles are cross and forked, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, apex is acuminate, 10~20 cm long, 3~10 mm wide; seeds are many, brown, linear, 1.5~2 cm long, about 2 mm in diameter, apex has white silky seed hairs; the spermoderm (seed coat) is 1.5~3 cm long. Its flowering period is from March to July, and the fruiting period is from July to December.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows and is often found in mountains, stream sides, roadsides, forest edges, or shaw (holt or miscellaneous wood forest). It often coils around the tree or climbs on walls, rocks, or in gardens. It is native to the south of the Yellow River Basin in China. This species is widely distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, southwest area, Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China. The plant is also distributed in other areas of Asia.

 plants of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem grow in grass Growth characteristics: The plant Trachelospermum jasminoides prefers a warm, moist, half-shade environment. Do not choose the soil, and it is tolerant to drought, but better avoids waterlogging. Its adaptability to climate is strong, able to withstand cold, also resistant to heat, but avoids cold. As a result, in the northern area of China, it can not pass the winter in the open ground, appropriately made potted only, should be moved indoors in winter. The plant is resistant to drought. In the southern area of China, it can safely pass summer in an open field. The plant prefers a wet environment and avoids dry wind attacks. The plant prefers weak light and also bears scorching sun and high temperatures. The plant climbs on the wall, and it grows on both the sunny side and the gloomy side. It is suitable for light clay and sandy loam with moderate fertility. It can grow in both acid soil and alkaline soil.

 dried segments and pieces of Chinese Starjasmine Stem Characters of herbs: The rattan stems of the herb are cylindrical, many-branched, of different lengths, 0.2~1 cm in diameter; the surface is reddish brown, with punctate lenticels and adventitious roots, and the texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is fibrous, yellowish-white, sometimes hollow. Leaves are opposite, have short petioles, intact leaves are elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 2~10 cm long, and 0.8~3.5 cm wide, the apex is acuminate or blunt, sometimes emarginate (slightly concave), leaf margin is slightly reflexed, the upper surface is yellowish green, the undersurface is a little lighter, leaf veins are pinnate, the undersurface is clearer and slightly convex; the texture of the herb is coriaceous, white woolly silks are visible when it is broken. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes slight bitter. The herb of a better grade has many leaves and is green.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.arctiin induce vasodilation, decrease blood pressure, induce convulsion in cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, cause respiratory failure in large doses, and cause skin redness and diarrhea in mice; ②.inhibitory effect on the isolated intestine and uterus of rabbits; ③.antibacterial effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and free collaterals, cool blood and detumescent (reduce swelling), stanch bleeding, and eliminate blood stasis. It is indicated for wind-dampness pyretic arthralgia, rheumatic arthralgia, muscle and tendon muscular constricture, waist and knee pain, arthralgia, carbuncle swelling, hematemesis (vomiting blood), traumatic injury from fall, postpartum lochiostasis, etc.

 Administration of Caulis Trachelospermi (Luò Shí Ténɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Caulis Trachelospermi (Luò Shí Ténɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams.Externally:fresh herb proper amount,mashed and apply at affected area; ②.Internally: water decoction,2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams),infusing in wine, or prepare to powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick,or extract juice and wash; ③.Internally:water decoction,6~15 grams,single herb recipe could be used up to 30 grams,infusing in wine,30~60 grams,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick,or extract juice and smear.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Caulis Trachelospermi should not be combined with calamus, bulb of fritillary.




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