Introduction of Luo Shi Teng:Chinese Starjasmine Stem or Caulis Trachelospermi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese Starjasmine Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.)Lem., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Chinese Starjasmine Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Caulis Trachelospermi(Chinese Starjasmine Stem).

Chinese Starjasmine Stem Pin Yin Name: Luò Shí Ténɡ.
 English Name: Chinese Starjasmine Stem.
 Latin Name: Caulis Trachelospermi.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Trachelospermi is the dried stem with the leaf of Trachelospermum jasminoides(Lindl.) Lem.(family Apocynaceae), used to dispel wind-damp, unblock the meridians, cool the blood and reduce swelling in the treatment of rheumatalgia of the joints with muscular contracture, as well as a sore throat. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Trachelospermi, Chinese Starjasmine Stem, Luò Shí Ténɡ.

 Botanical source: Famous herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Trachelospermi(Chinese Starjasmine Stem) as the dried stem with the leaf of (1). Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. It is a plant of the Trachelospermum Lem. Genus, Apocynaceae family, Gentianales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.)Lem.

 Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Luò Shí or Chinese Starjasmine, the herb is commonly known as Luò Shí Ténɡ or Chinese Starjasmine Stem. Evergreen woody vine, up to 10 meters long, with milk; Stem russet, cylindrical, lenticellate; Branchlets yellow pilose, becoming glabrous when old. Leaves leathery or subleathery, elliptic to ovate-elliptic or broadly obovate, 2~10 cm long, 1~4.5 cm wide, apex acute to acuminate or obtuse, sometimes concave or slightly convex, base attenuate to obtuse, leaf surface glabrous, leaf back sparsely pubescent, old decaying glabrous; Middle veins slightly concave, lateral veins flat, midrib convex, lateral veins 6~12 on each side, flat or slightly convex; Petiole short, pubescent, decaying glabrous; Petiole and leaf axillary glands subulate, ca. 1 mm long.

  Dichasial cymes axillary or terminal, many flowers conical, as long as the leaves or longer; The flowers are white and fragrant; Pedicels 2~5 cm long, pilose, glabrous when old; Bracts and bracteoles narrowly lanceolate, 1~2 mm long; Calyx 5-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, apically reflexed, 2~5 mm long, outside villous and margin hairy, inside glabrous, base with 10 scaly glands; Flower bud tip obtuse, corolla tube cylindrical, middle swollen, outer glabrous, inner surface pubescent at throat and stamen apex, 5~10 mm long, corolla segments 5~10 mm long, glabrous; Stamens inserted in middle of corolla tube, abdomen adherent to stigma, anthers arrowhead, base with ear, hidden in flower throat; Disc annular 5-lobed as long as ovary; Ovary composed of 2 free carpels, glabrous, style terete, stigma ovoid, apex entire; Each carpel has more than one ovule, resting on two simultaneous lateral membranes.

 Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem.:growing plant Follicles double, forked, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate, 10~20 cm long, 3~10 mm wide; Seeds numerous, brown, linear, 1.5~2 cm long, ca. 2 mm in diameter, apex with white silk seed hairs; The coat is 1.5~3 cm long. Its flowering period is from March to July, fruiting from July to December.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows and is often found in mountains, streams, roadsides, forest edges, or miscellaneous woods. It is often found on trees, walls, rocks, or gardens. It is native to the south of the Yellow River basin in China. The adaptability to climate is strong, able to withstand cold, also resistant to heat, but avoid cold. As a result, in the North China area, it can not pass the winter in the open ground, appropriately make potted only, should be moved indoors in winter. The plant is resistant to drought. In the south area of China, it can safely pass summer in open land. Like a wet environment, avoid dry wind attacks. The plant prefers weak light, also bear scorching sun and high temperature. The plant climbs the wall, it grows on both the sunny side and the gloomy side. It is suitable for light clay and sandy loam with moderate fertility. It can grow in both acid soil and alkaline soil.

 Trachelospermum jasminoides Lindl.Lem.:growing plant This species widely distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, southwest area, Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China. The plant also distributes in other areas of Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Trachelospermum jasminoides prefers a warm, moist, half-shade environment. Do not choose the soil, drought resistance, but better avoid waterlogging.

 Chinese Starjasmine Stem:herb photo Characters of herbs: The rattan stems of the herb are cylindrical, multi-branched, with different lengths, the diameter is 0.2~1 cm; The surface is reddish brown, with punctate lenticels and adventitious roots, the texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is fibrous, yellow and white, sometimes hollow. Leaves are opposite, with short stalks, complete leaves are oval or oval, 2~10 cm long and 0.8~3.5 cm wide, the apex gradually pointed or blunt, sometimes slightly concave, leaf margin slightly rolled back, the upper surface yellowish green, the back surface is a little lighter, leaf veins are pinnate, the back surface is clearer and slightly convex; The texture of the herb is coriaceous, white woolly silk can be seen when it is broken. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb which has many leaves and green is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.arctiin induce vasodilation, decrease blood pressure, induce convulsion in cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, cause respiratory failure in large doses, and cause skin redness and diarrhea in mice; ②.inhibitory effect on the isolated intestine and uterus of rabbits; ③.antibacterial effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and free collaterals, cool blood and detumescent(reduce swelling), stanch bleeding, and eliminate blood stasis. It is indicated for wind-dampness pyretic arthralgia, rheumatic arthralgia, muscle and tendon muscular constricture, waist and knee pain, arthralgia, carbuncle swelling, hematemesis(vomiting blood), traumatic injury from fall, postpartum lochiostasis, etc.

 Administration of Caulis Trachelospermi(Luò Shí Ténɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Caulis Trachelospermi(Luò Shí Ténɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams.Externally:fresh herb proper amount,mashed and apply at affected area;②.Internally: water decoction,2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams),infusing in wine, or prepare to powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick,or extract juice and wash;③.Internally:water decoction,6~15 grams,single herb recipe could be used up to 30 grams,infusing in wine,30~60 grams,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply stick,or extract juice and smear.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Caulis Trachelospermi should not be combined with calamus, bulb of fritillary.

Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
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