Introduction of Shan Ci Gu:Edible tulip or Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Edible tulip, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino., ②.Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe., ③.Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Edible tulip, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones.

Cremastra appendiculata:flowering plant Pin Yin Name: Shān Cí Gu.
 English Name: Edible tulip,rhizoma pleionis.
 Latin Name: Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones.
 Property and flavor: cold, light pungent, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones is the dried ripe pseudobulb of Cremastra appendiculata(D.Don) Makino, Pleione bulbocodioides(Franch.) Rolfe, or Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, used to clear heat for the treatment of boils, sores, scrofula, and snake bite. Also known as Appendiculate Cremasra Pseudobulb, or Common Pleiorre Pseudobulb.

 Botanical source: The herb Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones is the dried ripe pseudobulb of Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe, or Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, they are plants of the Cremastra Lindl. genus, the Orchidaceae family (orchid family) of the Microspermae order. It is also known as Pseudobulb of Appendiculate Cremastra or Shān Cí Gu.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones as the dried ripe pseudobulb of:(1). Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino., (2). Pleione bulbocodioides(Franch.) Rolfe., (3). Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe. These 3 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino.

 Cremastra appendiculata D.Don Makino.:flowering plant Botanical description: Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino. is also known as Cymbidium appendiculata D.Don., or Cremastra wallichiana Lindl.ex Wall., it is commonly known as Du Juan Lan. A terrestrial plant. Pseudobulb aggregated, subsphaeroidal, 1~3 cm thick. 1 leaf is terminal, rarely with 2 leaves; the leaf blade is elliptic, 45 cm long, 4~8 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed, the base narrowed into a petiole. Scape grows laterally on the top of pseudobulb, upright, stout, usually higher than leaves, sparsely 2 tubular sheaths; Racemes has sparse many flowers; Flowers lean to one side, purplish-red; Flower bracts are narrow-lanceolate, equal to or shorter than pedicels (with ovary); Tepals are tubular, the apex is slightly spreading; Sepals and petals are nearly equal, oblanceolate, about 3.5 cm long, middle-upper part is about 4 mm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed; Labellum is nearly spoon-shaped, subequal as sepals, the base is shallowly saccate, margin slightly reflexed upward on both sides, the front end is enlarged and 3-lobed, lateral lobes are narrow, middle lobed are oblong, base with an appressed or somewhat detached appendage; Gynostemium is slender, slightly shorter than sepals. Its flowering period is from June to August.

 Cremastra appendiculata D.Don Makino.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in damp places on hillsides and under forests. It is mainly distributed in the south of the Yangtze river basin, the northwest area, and other areas of China.

 Cremastra appendiculata D.Don Makino.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The dry pseudobulb of Cremastra appendiculata is irregular oblate or conical, 1.8~3 cm long, enlarged part is 1~2 cm in diameter, the apex is gradually raised, with petiole marks, sometimes there are scape marks near, the base is umbilication, with fibrous roots or fibrous root marks; the surface is yellowish-brown or chocolate brown, sags and crests, with wrinkles or vertical grooves, enlarged part has 2~3 slightly raised segments, some segment has filiform vascular bundle after the scale leaf withered and rot. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, hard to break, the fracture surface is ash grey (greyish-white), and slightly powdery (the surface and fracture surface of the processed herb is yellow-white, horniness). The herb has a mild taste, and slight smell, sticky when meeting water. The herb of better grade is large and full, the fracture surface is yellow-white, and the texture is firm and solid.

 Medicinal efficacy: Reduce swelling, eliminating stagnation, reduce phlegm, detoxification. It is indicated for the treatment of ulcer and swelling, scrofula, pharyngitis(throat obstruction), swelling and pain, bites of snake, insect or mad dog.

 Administration of Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones (Shān Cí Gu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones (Shān Cí Gu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction, 1~2 qian (about 3~6 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill, powder, Externally:extract juice and smear, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.

(2).Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe.

 Pleione bulbocodioides Franch.Rolfe.:flowering plant Botanical description: Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe. is also known as Coelogyne bulbocodioides Franch. It is also known as Du Suan Lan. A terrestrial plant, the plant grows up to 15~25 cm high. Pseudobulb is narrowly ovate or flask-shaped, 1~2 cm long, 1 leaf is terminal, and 1 cup of circular teeth after the leaf falls off. Leaf and flower grow out at the same time, elliptic-lanceolate, 10~25 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is slightly obtuse or acuminate, base narrowed and form a petiole, holding the scape. 1 flower grows terminally on the scape end. Flower bracts are oblong, nearly sharp-pointed, equal to or longer than the ovary; flowers are mauve (lilac) or pink; the sepal (calyx lobe) is upright, narrow-lanceolate, up to 4 cm long, 5~7 mm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed; labellum base is a wedge shape, inconspicuous 3-lobed, lateral lobes are semiovoid, the apex is blunt, middle lobes are semicircular or nearly cuneate, the apex is concave or almost not concave, the edge has irregular sawtooth, inner surface has 3~5 wavy or straight pleats. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is in July.

 Pleione bulbocodioides Franch.Rolfe.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows under the hillside forest and rocks, in areas at an altitude of 630~3,000 meters above sea level; It is mainly distributed in the east, south, southwest, and northwest, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The dried pseudobulb of Pleione bulbocodioides similar to the pseudobulb of Cremastra appendiculata, but not as full as it, conical or irregular bottle-necked block mass, 1.5~2.5 cm long, 1~2 cm in diameter, the upper part is gradually protruding, the apex broken part is disc shape (plate shape), the lower part is enlarged and round flat, the part near the base is concave; the surface is yellow-white or light brown (cortex is removed from woody part), smooth, with wrinkles, enlarged part has no segments, 1~2 segments occur on the concave part of the base. The fracture surface is pale yellow, horniness (corneous), and translucent. The herb has a weak smell, and tastes mild, slightly bitter, and slightly sticky.

 In addition to the above species, there are also the pseudobulbs of Pleioneyunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe and Oreorchispatens (Lindl.) Lindl.

(3).Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe.

 Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe.:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: It is also known as Yunnan Du Suan Lan. The difference between the two species lies in the difference between flower and leaf (flower and leaf bloom first). 1 leaf, old leaves are less than 3 cm wide. The calyx is triangular-obovate, 4~5 in the middle show undulate or flat plait, and the ovary is equal in length or longer than the flower.

 Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe.:drawing of plant and herb Ecological environment: The plant grows under the forest of a seam or on the earthy stone wall beside the ravine. It is mainly distributed in the east, central and southern areas, southwest and northwest, and other areas of China.
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