Introduction of Huang Yao Zi:Airpotato Yam Rhizome or Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Airpotato Yam Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Dioscorea bulbifera L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Airpotato Yam Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae(Airpotato Yam).

Dioscorea bulbifera:growing plant with fruit Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Yào Zǐ.
 English Name: Airpotato Yam Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae is the dried rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera L., used as a blood-cooling hemostatic for stopping various kinds of bleeding and to counteract toxins for treating boils and sores.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae (Airpotato Yam) is the dried rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera L., it is a plant of the Dioscorea. Genus, the Dioscoreaceae family (yam family) of the Liliflorae order. It is also known as Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae, Airpotato Yam Rhizome or Huánɡ Yào Zǐ.

 Dioscorea bulbifera L.:growing plant with fruit Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae(Airpotato Yam) as the dried rhizome of:(1). Dioscorea bulbifera L. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Dioscorea bulbifera L.

 Dioscorea bulbifera L.:growing plant with fruit Botanical description: It is also known as Huang Du. Twine grass vine. Tubers are ovoid to oblong, nearly earthy, tan, surface dense with most slender fibrous roots. Stem is cylindrical, sinistral, glabrous. Single leaves alternate; Petiole is slightly shorter than blade; Leaf blade is broadly ovate-cordate or ovate-cordate, 5~16~26 cm long, 2~14~26 cm wide, apex caudate acuminate, margin entire or slightly serrated, both surfaces are glabrous; Leaf axils have purple-brown globular or ovoid beads of different sizes (oligocytes), 1~3 cm in diameter, with rounded spots. Flowers are unisexual, dioecious; Male inflorescence spicate pendulous, constant fasciculate in leaf axils, sometimes base of inflorescence elongated arranged into panicles; Male flowers are solitary dense, base with 2 ovate bracts; Tepals are lanceolate, purple when fresh; 6 stamens, inserted at base of perianth, filaments subequal with anthers; Female inflorescence are similar to male inflorescence, often 2 to several fascicular axils, 20~50 cm long, 6 staminodes, 1/4 the length of perianth. Capsularfruit is reflexed pendulous, triangular oblong, 1.5~3 cm long, 0.5~1.5 cm wide, round at both ends, yellowish when mature, with dense purple spots on the surface. Seeds are dark brown, oblate, usually twinned at the apex of the axis of each cell, seeds color is chestnut brown, extending toward the seeds, oblong. Its flowering period is from July to October, fruiting from August to November.

 Dioscorea bulbifera L.:growing plant with fruit Ecological environment: The plant grows on the edge of a valley, gully, or edge of a mixed wood forest of altitude below 2,000 meters above sea level. Resource distribution: The plant is mainly distributed in the east, central and southern areas, southwest, northwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows in a valley, along a river, road, or on the edge of a forest. It prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to shade. It is advisable to cultivate in sandy loam with sufficient sunlight, deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil and good drainage.

 Characters of herbs: The herbs mostly are transverse thick slices, round or nearly round, with a diameter of 2.5~7 cm and a thickness of 0.5~1.5 cm. The surface is brown and black, shriveled, with numerous white, punctate fibrous root marks, or thin curving roots remain, and the cork skin is easy to peel off; The fracture surface is yellowish white to yellowish brown, flat or uneven. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easily broken, granular in the fracture surface, and scattered with orange-yellow pockmarks. The herb has a slight smell, bitter taste. The herb of better grade has large slice, brown-black cortex and yellow-white fracture surface.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibit the myocardium; ②.inhibitory effect on the isolated intestine; ③.inhibit staphylococcus aureus and many kinds of dermatophytes; ④.inhibitory effect on tumor cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, cool serum and clear galls, indicated for sore throat, carbuncle and ulcer, snake bite, goitre (goiter, thyroncus), vomiting blood, hemoptysis (spit blood).

 Administration of Airpotato Yam Rhizome (Huánɡ Yào Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Airpotato Yam Rhizome (Huánɡ Yào Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally: water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), Externally: mashed and apply stick, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally: water decoction, 3~9 grams, or infused in wine, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, 1~2 grams. Externally: proper amount, mashed the fresh herb, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick, or extract juice and smear.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should not take the herb Airpotato Yam Rhizome in big dose internally.

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