Introduction of Qian Hu:Hogfennel Root or Radix Peucedani.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Hogfennel Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., ②.Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Hogfennel Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Peucedani(Hogfennel Root).

Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn:growing shrub Pin Yin Name: Qián Hú.
 English Name: Hogfennel Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Peucedani.
 Property and flavor: light cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Peucedani is the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, or Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim., used to check the adverse up-flow of Qi, and resolve phlegm for relieving cough and dyspnea with copious or yellow sticky expectoration.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Peucedani (Hogfennel Root) is the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, or Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim., they are plants of the Peucedanum L. genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Umbelliflorae order. It is also known as Root of Whiteflower Hogfennel, Root of Common Hogfennel, or Qián Hú.

 Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.:drawing of plant and herb Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Peucedani(Hogfennel Root) as the dried root of:(1). Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., (2). Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

 Botanical description: Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. is also known as white flower hogfennel, Bái Huà Qián Hú (literally it means white flower hogfennel), Shuǐ Qián Hú (literally it means water hogfennel), Zōng Bāo Qián Hú (literally it means brown-sheath hogfennel), etc. Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 60~100 cm tall. Roots are conical, with a few lateral roots, the root surface is yellowish-brown to brownish-black, and many chocolate brown leaf sheath fibers remain on the root tip. The stem is upright, and cylindrical, the upper part is branched, and pubescent, the lower part is glabrous. Basal leaves have long petioles, the base is enlarged into a sheath-shape, holding stem; the leaf blade is broadly triangular-ovate, trifoliolate, bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid, 15~20 cm long, about 12 cm wide, the primary leaflets are in 2~3 pairs, the lowest pair has a long stalk, the stalk is 3.5~6 cm long, others are with a short stalk or sessile; the terminal lobes are rhomboid obovate, the apex is acuminate, the base is cuneate to truncate, the edge has irregular 3-4 coarse tooth or crenature, sometimes lower serrates are lobed or deeply parted, 1.5~6 cm long, 1.2~4 cm wide, leaf veins on under surface are conspicuously protuberant, both surfaces are glabrous, or sometimes there are sparse short hairs along or on the leaf veins of under surface. Cauline leaves and basal leaves are similar, and smaller; the leaf on the upper part of the stem is sessile, the leaf blade is ternate, the lobes are narrow, the base is cuneate, and the base of the middle leaf is decurrent. Compound umbels are terminal or lateral, spoke 6~18, unequal length, 1.5~4.5 cm long, pilose; Involucral bracts 1 to several, fall off after flowering, linear-lanceolate, 0.7~1 cm long, the margin is membranous, pilose; umbellule is composed of 15~20 flowers, pedicels are unequal length, pilose; bractlets 7~12, ovate-lanceolate, the apex is long acuminate, 3~5 mm long, 0.6~1 mm wide, equal to or longer than pedicels, pilose; Calyx teeth are not conspicuous; 5 petals, white, broad-ovate to orbicular; 5 stamens; Style is short, curved, stylopodium is conical. The fruit is ovoid, dorsal is compressed, about 4 mm long, about 3 mm wide, brown, sparsely short-hairy, dorsal edges are slightly protruding, lateral edges are winglike, narrower than the fruit body, slightly thicker, there are 3-5 tubing(oil duct) in the ridge groove, the connate surface has 6-10 tubing(oil duct), endosperm abdomen surface is straight. Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides and forest margins, roadsides, or in the grass on half-shady hillsides, at an altitude of 250~2,000 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the south middle reaches area of the Yellow River, northwest and southwest, the Zhujiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cold and moist climate, drought resistance, and cold resistance. With strong adaptability, it can grow in mountainous regions and plains. It grows best in the field with a deep soil layer, and fertile loam rich in humus, should not choose heavy clay soil and low-lying wetland for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The root of whiteflower hogfennel: the root is subcylindrical, conical, or fusiform (spindle-shaped), slightly twisted, and the lower part has branches, 3~15 cm long, and 1~2 cm in diameter. The root head often has stem marks and fibrous leaf sheath residues; The surface is gray-brown to dark-brown, with irregular vertical grooves and wrinkles, and transverse lenticels; There are dense rings on the upper part. The texture of the herb is soft, hard when it is dried, and breakable, the fracture surface is irregular and loose, and many small yellow-brown oil spots scattered on the surface are visible under a magnifying glass; The cortex is thick, light yellowish white, the cambium ring is obvious, and the woody part is yellowish(light yellow). The herb has a fragrance and tastes slightly bitter and pungent. The herb of better grade has a thick stick, the texture is soft, and a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antiphlegm effect; ②.Antitussive effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipates the wind to clear the heat, downbear Qi (sending down abnormally ascending) and reduce phlegm.

 Administration of Radix Peucedani (Qián Hú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Peucedani (Qián Hú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.

(2).Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim.

 Peucedanum decursivum Maxim.:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim. is also known as Porphyroscias decursiva Miq., or Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. et Sav. It is commonly known as Zǐ Huà Qián Hú (literally it means purple-flower hogfennel), Tǔ Dāng Guī, Yā Jiǎo Qián Hú (literally it means duck feet hogfennel), etc. Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters high. The root is conical, often has several rootlets, and surfaces are yellowish-brown to chocolate brown. The stem is upright, cylindrical, with shallow vertical grooves, smooth, purple, upper part is ramose (branched), pilose. Radical leaves and cauline leaves have long petioles, the petiole is 13~36 cm long, the base is swollen into a round purple sheath, holding the stem, out surface is glabrous; the leaf blade is triangular to oval, hard papery, 10~25 cm long, 1-trisected or 1-2-pinnatifid; petiolule of the primary leaflets extending winglike, lateral lobes have a basal junction with the tip leaf, extending along the leaf axis in aliform(winglike), edge of the wing is serrate; terminal lobes are oval or oblong-lanceolate, 5~15 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is pointed, the edge has white cartilaginous serrate, the serrate apex is pointed, the upper surface is dark green, pubescent on veins, under surface is green-white, the main vein is often purplish, glabrous; The leaves on the upper stem are simplified into a saclike swollen purple sheath. Compound umbel is terminal and lateral, the peduncle is 3~8 cm long, pilose; 10~22 umbrella spokes, 2~4 cm long; involucral bracts 1~3, ovoid, broadly sheathed, persistent, reflexed, purple; bractlet 3~8, linear to lanceolate, glabrous; Umbrella spokes and flower stalks are hairy; Flowers are modena (deep purple); Calyx teeth are conspicuous, linear cone-shaped or triangular cone-shaped; Petals are obovate or elliptic-lanceolate, the apex is usually not infolding into concave-head shape; Anthers are dark purple. The fruit is oblong to ovoid, 4~7 mm long, 3~5 mm wide, and glabrous, the dorsal ridge is raised, and pointed, the lateral edge has a thicker narrow wing, and the width is near to the fruit body, 1~3 tubing (oil duct) in edge grooves, connation surface has 4~6 tubing (oil duct), endosperm abdomen surface concaved. Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from September to November.

 Peucedanum decursivum Maxim.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows on the edge of hillside forests, ditch and gully sides, or in shaw bush. It is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Hanjiang river area, the Zhujiang river area, the north area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root of purple flower hogfennel: the root head is thicker and shorter, and there are few fibrous leaf sheath residues. The cortex of the fracture surface is easy to separate from the woody part. The herb has a fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter and pungent. The herb of better grade has a thick stick, the texture is soft, and a strong fragrance.
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