Introduction of Nan Sha Shen:Fourleaf Ladybell Root or Radix Adenophorae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fourleaf Ladybell Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Adenophora tetraphylla(Thunb.) Fisch., ②.Adenophora stricta Miq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Fourleaf Ladybell Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Adenophorae(Fourleaf Ladybell Root).

Adenophora tetraphylla:flowering plant Pin Yin Name: Nán Shā Shēn.
 English Name: Fourleaf Ladybell Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Adenophorae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Adenophorae is the dried root of Adenophora tetraphylla(Thunb.) Fisch., or Adenophora stricta Miq.(family Campanulaceae), used to nourish Yin, clear the lung, resolve phlegm and replenish Qi for relieving cough in cases of lung Yin deficiency, and deficiency of Qi and fluid in the late stage of a febrile disease. The herb is commonly known as Radix Adenophorae, Fourleaf Ladybell Root, Nán Shā Shēn.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Adenophorae(Fourleaf Ladybell Root) is the dried root of Adenophora tetraphylla(Thunb.) Fisch., or Adenophora stricta Miq., they are plants of the Adenophora Fisch. Genus, the Campanulaceae family of the Asterales order.

(1).Adenophora stricta Miq.

 Adenophora stricta Miq.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Adenophora stricta Miq., or Sha Shen, perennial herb, stem height is 40~80 cm. Unbranched, often short bristles or villous. Basal leaves heart-shaped, large and with a long handle; stem leaves sessile, or only the lower part of the leaf has a very short stalk winged; leaf blade elliptic, narrowly ovate, base cuneate, long 3~11 cm, width 1.5~5 cm. Apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin irregular jagged, two sparsely haired or hirsute, or close to the hair. Unbranched inflorescence learn from false racemes, or made extremely narrow short branching panicles, rarely with long branches from panicles; pedicels less than 5 mm; calyx pubescent often die granular Mao, a small hairless, tube often obovate, rarely obovate conical, 5 lobes, narrow, mostly diamond-shaped, a few strips lanceolate; corolla broadly campanulate, blue or purple, outside glabrous or hirsute, 5 lobes, triangular-shaped oval; disc short tubular, glabrous; 5 stamens, filaments expanded into the lower part of the sheet, anthers slender; style often slightly longer than corolla, stigma 3-lobed,ovary inferior, 3 rooms. Capsule oval-shaped ball, little oval-shaped, long 6~10 mm. Seeds numerous, brown, slightly flat, there is an edge, about 1.5 cm. Its flowering and fruiting period is from August to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows mostly in the grass of the mountain and wild. It mainly distributes in the north, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is conical or cylindrical, slightly curved, 7 ~ 27 cm long and 0.8 ~ 3 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish white or light brown yellow, and there are often residual rough skins in the concave part, with deep horizontal stripes in the upper part, which are intermittent and circular, and longitudinal stripes and grooves in the lower part. With 1 or 2 rhizomes at the top. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is loose foam, easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, yellowish white and many cracks. The herb has a slight smell, slightly sweet taste. The herb which has thick root, full, no cortex, yellow and white color is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Expectorant effect; ②.Cardiac stimulant effect; ③.Antifungal action:Radix Adenophorae aqueous extract (1:2) had different degree of inhibitory effect on dermatophytes such as Candida oduangi and Candida albicans in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Nourish Yin and clear the lung, reduce phlegm, benefit Qi. It is indicated for lung heat and dry cough, Yin deficiency and over-strained cough, dry cough and phlegm sticky, Qi Yin deficiency, dysphoria with smothery sensation and dry mouth.

 Administration of Radix Adenophorae(Nán Shā Shēn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Adenophorae(Nán Shā Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams;②.Internally: water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams)(fresh herb 1~3 liang,about 30~90 grams), or prepare to pill,powder;③.water decoction, 10~15 grams, fresh herbs 15~30 grams; or prepared to pill, powder.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions:The herb Radix Adenophorae should not be combined with black false hellebore.

(2).Adenophora tetraphylla (Thunb.)Fisch.

 Adenophora tetraphylla Thunb.Fisch. Botanical description: It is commonly known as Adenophora tetraphylla (Thunb.)Fisch, or Lun Ye Sha Shen(literally it means wheel blade Adenophora), perennial herb. Roots are stout, carrot-shaped, wrinkled. The stem is erect, simple, 60~150 cm high. Leaves are usually 4 whorled, sessile, or short sessile, the leaf blade is elliptic or lanceolate, 4~8 cm long and 1.5~3 cm wide, the margin is serrate, green at the upper surface, light green at the back surface, densely pilose. The panicle is large, pedicels of unequal length, 1 bracteole per pedicel; 5 calyx teeth, slender and straight, green and slightly black; Corolla campanulate, blue-purple, narrow ampulla, 5 lobes, 5 stamens, yellow; Ovary is located at the inferior, style extending outside corolla, bluish-purple, the apex is rounded, stigma is 9-lobed, the disk surrounds the Kieron of the style. The capsule is 3-loculed, ovoid. Its flowering period is from July to August.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows mostly in the tall grass of the mountain and wild. It mainly distributes in the north area, the Yellow River area, the lower reaches of the Yangtze river area, the Zhujiang river area, and other area of China.
Expectorants,Herbs for Resolving Heat-Phlegm.

 Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving heat-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of heat-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.
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