Introduction of Dou Kou:Round Cardamom Fruit or Fructus Amomi Rotundus.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon08 Introduction: Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs: a fragrant agent or substance herbs effective for resolving damp, often used in the treatment of damp syndrome marked by anorexia, lassitude, nausea and vomiting, distension in the chest and abdomen, greasy tongue coating and slippery pulse either in cases of febrile diseases or in other miscellaneous diseases.

 
Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Fruit).

Fructus Amomi Rotundus Pin Yin Name: Dòu Kòu.
 English Name: Round Cardamom Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Amomi Rotundus.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Amomi Rotundus is the dried ripe fruit of Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep., or Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton(family Zingiberaceae), used to resolve damp, move Qi, and warm the middle for relieving epigastric and abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting due to accumulation of cold-dampness of stagnation of Qi in the spleen and stomach. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Amomi Rotundus, Round Cardamom Fruit, Dòu Kòu.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep., or (2). Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton. They are plants of the Amomum Genus, the Zingiberaceae family, Scitamineae order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep.


 Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep. Botanical description: It is commonly known as Amomum kravanh, or Bái Dòu Kòu. Stem tufted, plant height is 3 meters, stem base leaf sheath green. Leaf-blade ovate-lanceolate, ca. 60 cm long, 12 cm wide, apex tail apex, both surfaces smooth glabrous, subsessile; Leaf tongue round, 7~10 mm long; The mouth of leaf sheath and leaf tongue are densely covered with long coarse hair.

 Inflorescences from rhizome near stem base, cylindrical, sparsely conical, 8~11 cm long, 4~5 cm wide, bracts densely imbricate; Bracts triangular, 3.5~4 cm long, straw yellow, with distinct grid pattern; Bracteoles tubular, dehiscent laterally; Calyx tubular, white reddish, outside villous, apex tridentate, corolla tube subequal with calyx tube, lobes white, oblong, ca. 1 cm long, ca. 5 mm wide; Lower sepal elliptic, ca. 1.5 cm long, ca. 1.2 cm wide, central yellow, concave, margin yellowish-brown, base with flap stalk; Stamens descending, septum appendage trifid, ca. 3 mm; Ovary villous.

 Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep. Capsule subglobose, ca. 16 mm in diameter, white or yellowish, slightly obtuse, 3-ribbed, with 7~9 shallow grooves and several slightly elevated longitudinal lines, yellow coarse hairs at the top and base, pericarp woody, easily dehiscent into three valves; The seeds are irregular polyhedra, 3~4 mm in diameter, dark brown, shallow, aromatic. Its flowering period is May, fruiting period is from June to August.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in warm, moist forests rich in humus, in tropical forests with good drainage and fertility. It was native to Cambodia, Thailand. It was introduced and planted in Yunnan and Guangdong of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Amomum kravanh prefers a warm, cool, humid climate, seedlings stop growing when meet a short time 9.5℃ low temperature, leaf shrinkage, leaf tip scorched dry. The above ground part of the adult plants died at 0℃. Extreme temperature up to 41℃, under shaded conditions, it can grow normally. It should be cultivated in sunny, organically rich loam or sandy loam rather than clay or gravel soil.

 Amomum kravanh Pirre ex Gagnep. Characters of herbs: spherical, diameter 1.2~1.8 cm. The surface is yellowish-white to light yellowish-brown, has 3 deeper longitudinal groove grain, the top has a protuberant column base, the base has the fruit stalk mark below concave, both ends have a light brown nap. The pericarp was light, crisp, and easily split longitudinally. It was divided into 3 compartments, each containing about 10 seeds. Seeds irregular polyhedral, abaxially slightly raised, 3~4 mm in diameter, dark brown, wrinkled, and with residual aril. The smell is fragrant, the taste is pungent cool resembles camphor slightly.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.promote gastric juice secretion; ②.promote gastrointestinal peristalsis; ③.stop abnormal fermentation in the intestine; ④.eliminate gastrointestinal Qi; ⑤.aromatic stomach-strengthening effect; ⑥.enhance the effect of low dose streptomycin on experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs; ⑦.significant antiasthmatic effects; ⑧.inhibitory effect on Shigella dysenteriae.

 Medicinal efficacy: Reduce dampness and relieving distension, promoting the circulation of Qi and warm the middle, warm the middle and stop vomiting, warm the stomach, appetizing and aid digestion. It is indicated for turbid damp obstructing in middle-energizer, Qi stagnation, dampness and Qi stagnation, food stagnation, lack of appetite, incoordination between the spleen and the stomach, the onset of dampness warm syndrome, chest tightness and no hunger, cold and dampness nausea, abdominal distention, chest and abdominal distention, food retention, choking diaphragm, cardiac spasm, stomach cold and vomiting, vomiting, nausea, malaria, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Dòu Kòu): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Dòu Kòu)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams, better decoct later(CP), Internally:water decoction, should not decoct for long time,0.5~2 qian(about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams, add later to decoct, or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

(2).Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton.


 Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton. Botanical description: It is commonly known as Java Amomum, or Zhǎo Wā Bái Dòu Kòu. Perennial herbs, 1~1.5 meters tall, rhizome elongated, stem base leaf sheath red. Leaf-blade lanceolate, 25~50 cm long, 4~9 cm wide, the tip of tail 2.5~3 cm long, except ciliate, both sides glabrous, turpentine, sessile; Lobelia difid, rounded, 5~7 mm long, initially sparsely hairy, glabrescent and only sparsely ciliate. Leaf-sheath mouth is glabrous.

 Inflorescence cylindric, ca.5 cm long, ca. 2.5 cm wide, gradually elongated after flowering; Pedicels 8 cm long; Bracts ovate-oblong, 2~2.5 cm long, 7~10 mm wide, straw-colored, with longitudinal streaks and margin hairs, persistent; Bracteoles tubular, apex trifid, hairy; Calyx tube as long as corolla tube, 1~1.2 cm long, hairy; Corolla white or slightly yellowish, lobes oblong, 8 mm long; Lower sepal elliptic, 15~18 mm long, 1~1.5 mm wide, slightly concave, pale yellow, midrib with purplish orange band, hairy, lateral staminodes absent; Filaments base hairy; Anthers elliptic, ca. 2 mm long; Septum appendage trifid, ca. 4 mm; Nectary yellow-brown, 2, subcylindrical, 2 mm long; Ovary villous. Fruit oblate, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, with 9 grooves when dry, by thin long hair, when fresh light yellow; Seeds irregular polyhedra, ca. 4 mm wide; Planting ditch. Its flowering period is from February to May, fruiting period is from June to August.

 Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton. Ecological environment: The plant grows in the forest environment with good drainage and fertilizer retention, in the dank valley. It was native to south China, was introduced and planted in Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan provinces of China.

 Characters of herbs: Fruit globose, 0.8~2 cm in diameter; The surface is yellowish-white to light yellowish-brown, have 3 deeper longitudinal groove grain, the top has protuberant column base, the base has the fruit stalk mark below concave, both ends have a light brown nap. The peel was easily split longitudinally and was divided into 3 compartments, each containing about 10 seeds. Seeds irregular polyhedral, slightly raised abaxially, 3~4 mm in diameter, dark brown surface, wrinkled. The smell is fragrant, the taste is pungent cool resembles camphor slightly.
 
Semen Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Seed).

 Semen Amomi Rotundus Brief Introduction: The herb Semen Amomi Rotundus is the seed of round cardamom freshly removed from the pericarp, which is stronger in activity than the fruit.

 ✵The botanical origin of the Semen Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Seed) is the same as Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Fruit), was introduced in the entry titled "Fructus Amomi Rotundus(Round Cardamom Fruit)".
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Dou Kou:Round Cardamom Fruit or Fructus Amomi Rotundus.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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