Introduction of Yuan Hua:Lilac Daphne Flower Bud or Flos Genkwa.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Lilac Daphne Flower Bud, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Daphne genkwa Zucc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Lilac Daphne Flower Bud, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Genkwa(Lilac Daphne Flower Bud).

Flos Genkwa:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Yuán Huā.
 English Name: Lilac Daphne Flower Bud.
 Latin Name: Flos Genkwa.
 Property and flavor: warm, bitter, pungent, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Genkwa is the dried flower-bud of Daphne genkwa Zucc.(family Thymelaeaceae), used as a hydragogue and purgative for treating severe edema, hydrothroax and ascites with oliguria and constipation, and externally for scabies and frostbite. The herb is commonly known as Flos Genkwa, Lilac Daphne Flower Bud, Yuán Huā.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Genkwa(Lilac Daphne Flower Bud) as the dried flower-bud of the species (1).Daphne genkwa Zucc. It is a plant of the Daphne Linn. Genus, the Thymelaeaceae family of the Myrtales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Daphne genkwa Zucc.

 Daphne genkwa Zucc.:flower buds on branch tip Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yuán Huā. A deciduous shrubs, 0.3~1 meter tall, much-branched; Bark brown, glabrous; Branchlets cylindrical, thin, wrinkled after drying, young branchlets yellow-green or purplish-brown, densely flaxen filamentous pilose, old branchlets purplish-brown or purplish-red, glabrous.

 Daphne genkwa Zucc.:flowering plant Leaves opposite, thin alternate, papery, ovate or lanceolate to oval elliptical oblong, 3~4 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, base broadly cuneate or obtuse rounded, margin entire, the green, dark brown after drying, the pale green, after drying yellow-brown, densely covered with silk was yellow villous, only when they had been old leaf base bulk raw silk yellow villous, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, it is significantly below; Petiole short or nearly absent, ca. 2 mm long, gray pilose.

 Daphne genkwa Zucc.:flowering branches Flowers open earlier than leaves, purple or bluish-purple flowers, often 3~6 flowers clustered in leaf axils or lateral, open earlier than leaves, easy to distinguish from other species. Pedicels short, glaucous pilose; Calyx tube slender, tubular, 6~10 mm long, outside with filiform pilose, 4 lobes, ovate or oblong, 5~6 mm long, 4 mm wide, apex rounded, outside sparsely pubescent; 8 stamens, 2 inserted in the upper and middle of the calyx tube, filaments short, ca. 0.5 mm long, anthers yellow, ovoid elliptic, ca. 1 mm long, extending larynx, apex obtuse; Disk annular, undeveloped; Ovary long obovate, 2 mm long, densely yellowish pilose, style short or absent, stigma capitate, orange-red.

 Fruit fleshy, white, elliptic, ca. 4 mm long, enveloped in the lower part of persistent calyx tube, with 1 seed. Its flowering period is from March to May, fruiting from June to July.

 Daphne genkwa Zucc.:flowering plants Ecological environment: The plant grows on roadsides, hillsides, or gardens, at an altitude of 300~1,000 meters above sea level. The plant is suitable for a warm climate, drought tolerance, and fear of waterlogging, suitable for cultivation in fertile and loose sandy soil. The plant distributes in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Daphne genkwa prefers a warm climate, drought resistance and fear of waterlogging, fertile loose sandy soil are appropriate for cultivation.

 Lilac Daphne Flower Bud:herb photo Characters of herbs: The flower buds are mallet-shaped, slightly flattened, and mostly curved, with a length of 1~1.7 cm and a diameter of about 1.5 mm; Often 3~7 flowers are clustered on a short stalk with 1~2 bracts densely covered with yellow hairs at the base. The surface of the perianth tube is lilac or grayish-green, densely covered with white pubescent, apex 4-lobed, lobes are ovate, lilac or yellowish-brown. The texture of the herb is soft, it has a mild odor, tastes sweet and slightly pungent. The herb of better grade has lavender or grayish-purple flowers without impurities.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.increase intestinal peristalsis, improve the tension, cause abdominal pain and watery diarrhea, increased dose shows inhibitory effect; ②.antitussive; ③.expectorant effects; ④.improve the function of the cardiovascular system; ⑤.cause uterine contractions and terminate the pregnancy; ⑥.inhibitory effects on a variety of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Purge water and eliminate retained fluid, expectorant and relieve cough, detoxification and kill parasites. It is indicated for edema and swelling fullness, hydophysis in chest and abdomen, phlegm and retained fluid, hydrothorax, accumulation, hypocholic pain, abdominal distension fullness, reversed flow of Qi and asthma cough, inhibition of stool and urine, food poisoning, malarial nodule, carbuncle swelling, scabies, favus of the scalp, carbuncle boils, furuncle, tinea, chilblain, etc.

 Administration of Flos Genkwa(Yuán Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Genkwa(Yuán Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:1.5~3 grams. Prepared herb with vinegar, grinded into powder and take,0.6~0.9 grams each time,1 time daily. Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 qian(about 1.5~3 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into powder and apply stick, or mouthwash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, grinded into powder and take,0.6~0.9 grams each time,1 time daily. Externally:grinded into powder and apply stick, or mouthwash with water decoction.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:should forbidden using the herb Flos Genkwa during pregnancy or physical deficiency weakness, should not combine with licorice root.

Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Hydragogues or Drastic Purgatives.

 Introduction: Herbs Hydragogues or Drastic Purgatives: also known as diuretic hydragogue herbs, an agent or substance herbs that causes copious discharge of water through catharsis and at the same time increases urine excretion.
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