Introduction of Ji Li:Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit or Fructus Tribuli.
✵The article gives records of the herb Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Tribulus terrestris L., ②.Tribulus cistoides L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Fructus Tribuli (Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit).
Pin Yin Name: Jí Lí, or Cì Jí Lí
English Name: Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit.
Latin Name: Fructus Tribuli.
Property and flavor: slightly warm nature, tastes pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Tribuli is the dried fruit of Tribulus terrestris L. (family Zygophylaceae), used (1).to pacify and soothe the liver for treating headache, vertigo, thoracic and hypochondriac pain, and mastitis due to depressed liver Qi, (2).to improve vision in cases of conjunctivitis and nebula, and (3).to dispel wind in cases of urticaria and pruritus. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Tribuli, Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit, Jí Lí.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Tribuli, or the Puncturevine Caltrop Fruit(Ci Ji Li) as the fruit of the Zygophyllaceae family (bean caper family) plant species (1). Tribulus terrestris L., or (2). Tribulus cistoides L. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Tribulus terrestris L.
Botanical description: Tribulus terrestris L. is a plant of the Zygophyllaceae family (bean caper family) and Tribulus (puncture vine) genus, it is commonly known as Puncturevine Caltrop, or Ji Li, (and many other names including goat's-head, bindii, bullhead, burra gokharu, bhakhdi, caltrop, small caltrops, cat's-head, devil's eyelashes, devil's-thorn, devil's-weed, puncture vine, puncturevine, and tackweed.). An annual herb. Stems are usually branched from the base, procumbent on the ground, and hasribs, its length is up to around 1 meter; the whole plant is covered with silky pilose. Stipules (peraphyllum) are lanceolate, small and pointed, about 3 mm long; leaves are paripinnate compound leaves, opposite, one is long and another is short; long leaves are 3~5 cm long, width is 1.5~2 cm, usually has 6~8 pairs of lobules (leaflets); short leaves are 1~2 cm long, has 3~5 pairs of lobules; lobules are opposite, oblong, 4~15 mm long, the apex is pointed or obtuse, the surface is glabrous or with threadlike hairs only along the mid-vein (midrib), the back surface is covered with white reptant threadlike hairs.
Flowers are primrose yellow (pale yellow), small, orderly, solitary, and grow in axils of short leaves; pedicels are 4~10 mm long, sometimes up to 20 mm; 5 calyxes, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, about 4 mm long, the back is hairy, persistent; 5 flower petals, obovate, apex is slightly truncated, alternate with sepals; 10 stamens, inserted at base of floral disc (flower disc), base has scaly glands. The ovary has 5 carpels.
Fruits are separating fruits, pentagonal or spherical, composed of five fruit valves which are arranged in a stellated shape, each fruit valve has one pair of long and short thorns spines, and its back surface has short hirsutes and tubercules (tubercular protrusions). Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from June to September.
Ecological Environment: Tribulus Terrestris L. grows on the barren hillock, near the field, and field sides. This species is mainly distributed in China from north to south. It is native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in Southern Europe, Southern Asia, and Australia. This species is widely distributed around the world.
Growth characteristics: Tribulus terrestris prefers a warm and moist climate, drought resistance, afraid of waterlogging. It is appropriate to choose a field with sufficient sunshine, loose and fertile, sandy soil with good drainage for cultivation, and it is not suitable for planting in pluvial regions, clay, and low-lying land.
Characters of herbs: The collective fruit (polythalamic fruit) is mostly composed of 5 schizocarp valves, which are arranged radially in a five-ribs spherical shape, 7~12 mm in diameter. The commodity herb often cracks into a single mericarp, the mericarp is a securiform triangle, with a length of 3~6 mm, light yellow-green, the back is raised, has strigation (longitudinal ridges) and many spinules (small spines), and has 1 pair of symmetrical long thorns and short spines each, separated into figure eight shape, coarse and rough on both sides, has reticulate patterns and is ash gray (grayish-white); The pericarp is firm and hard, ligneous (woody), contains 3~4 seeds inside. Seeds are oval (egg-shaped), slightly flat, oily. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter and pungent. The herb of a better grade has mericarps in uniforms, full and solid grains, and ash gray (grayish-white).
(2).Tribulus cistoides L.
Botanical description: Tribulus cistoides L. is a plant of the Zygophyllaceae family (bean caper family) and Tribulus (puncture vine) genus, it is commonly known as Big Flower Tribulus, or Da Hua Ji Li (and known by several other synonyms, including Kallstroemia cistoides (L.) Endl., Tribulus alacranensis Millsp., Tribulus moluccanus Decne., Tribulus sericeus Andersson., Tribulus terrestris var. cistoides (L.) Oliv.)., a perennial herb. Branches are procumbent or ascending, densely pilose. Leaves are opposite, 2.5~4.5 cm long, 4~7 pairs of lobules (leaflets); lobules are subsessile or short stipitate, papery, oblong or obovate-oblong, apex is orbicular and sharp-pointed, base deflect; stipules are opposite, lanceolate or nearly sickle-shaped, about 6 mm long.
Flowers are big, solitary and grow in leaf axils, about 3 cm in diameter; pedicels are about equal length as leaves; sepals are lanceolate, about 8 mm long, outside is villous; flower petals are obovate-oblong, about 20 mm long; ovary is covered with pale yellow hirsutes, styles are stout, about 2 mm long, stigma lobes are small. Mericarps are 8~12 mm long, have tubercles, and 2-4 spiculate thorns. Its flowering period is in May.
Ecological Environment: Tribulus cistoides L. grows in sand beaches or wasteland (barren land), in fields, roadsides, and water meadows (meadows at riversides). Produced everywhere. This species is mainly distributed in the northern area, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Hainan Island, and southwest areas of China. This species is also known as Jamaican feverplant or puncture vine, it is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions.
Growth characteristics: Tribulus cistoides prefers a warm and moist climate, drought resistance, afraid of waterlogging. It is appropriate to choose a field with sufficient sunshine, loose and fertile, sandy soil with good drainage for cultivation, and it is not suitable for planting in pluvial regions, clay, and low-lying land.
Characters of herbs: There is only one pair of big needle-like spines on the back of the mericarps; The mericarp contains 4~6 seeds. The herb of a better grade has mericarps in uniforms, full and solid grains, and ash gray (grayish-white).
Pharmacological actions: ①.hypotensive effect; ②.diuretic effect on anesthetized animals; ③.alkaloid and aqueous solution can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Medicinal efficacy: Calm the liver, dispel melancholy or relieving Qi Stagnancy, activate blood circulation and dispel wind, improving eyesight (improving acuity of vision), descending Qi, relieve itching. It is indicated for cephalea (headache), dizziness, swelling pain in chest and hypochondrium, fullness sensation in chest, cough, acute mastitis, breast distending pain, amenorrhea (menischesis), red eyes and nebula (conjunctival congestion, slight corneal opacity), pruritus, urticaria itching (measles itching), leukodermia, abdominal mass, sore and subcutaneous ulcer, ulcer, scrofula (lymphoid tuberculosis), etc.
Administration of Fructus Tribuli (Jí Lí):
Administration Guide of Fructus Tribuli (Jí Lí)
①.Internally: 6~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle apply; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~9 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction;or prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick.
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1.Introduction of Ji Li:Puncture-vine Caltrop Fruit or Fructus Tribuli.