Introduction of Ju Hua:Flos Chrysanthemi or Chrysanthemum Flower.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chrysanthemum Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Chrysanthemum Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Chrysanthemi(Chrysanthemum Flower).

Chrysanthemum Flower:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jú Huā.
 English Name: Chrysanthemum Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Chrysanthemi.
 Property and flavor: light cold, pungent, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Chrysanthemi is the dried flower-head of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.(family Compositae), used (1).to disperse wind and heat in the treatment of wind-heat affliction with fever and headache, (2).to pacify the liver and brighten the eyes for treating acute conjunctivitis, and dizziness in hyperactive liver Yang, and (3).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils and sores. The herb is commonly known as Flos Chrysanthemi, Chrysanthemum Flower, Jú Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Chrysanthemi is the dried flower-head of the Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., it is commonly known as Chrysanthemum Flower, it is a plant of the Chrysanthemums(mums or chrysanths) genus, the Asteraceae(Compositae) family of the Asterales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.

 Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat:flower petals. Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Chrysanthemum flowers or Ju Hua, are perennial in their original form, 50~140 cm tall, and all are densely covered with white fuzz. The base of the stem is slightly lignified, slightly purplish red, and young branches are slightly ribbed. Leaves are alternate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3.5~5 cm long, 3~4 cm wide, apex obtuse, base subcordate or broadly cuneate, margin usually pinnately deeply lobed, lobes coarsely serrate or heavily serrate, both sides are densely covered with white hairs; petioles have shallow grooves. Headform inflorescences axillary, 2.5~5 cm in diameter; trichomes hemispherical, sepals 3~4 layers, green, coats, marginal membranous, pale brown, outer sepals are smaller, ovate or ovate lanceolate, second layer sepals are broadly ovate, inner sepals are oblong; receptacles are small, convex, hemispherical; ray flowers female, located at margin, tongue linear-long, ca. as long as 3 cm, apex obtuse, white, yellow, reddish or lavender, stamenless, 1 pistil, style is short, stigma 2-lobed; tubular flower bisexual, centrally located, yellow, with 1 ovate membranous scale outside each flower, corolla tube length 4 mm, apex 5-lobed, lobes triangular-ovate, 5 stamens, polypetalous, filaments are very short, isolated, 1 pistil, ovary sub position, oblong, style linear, stigma 2-lobed. Achenes oblong, 4-sided, apically truncated, smooth and glabrous. Its flowering period is from September to November, fruiting period is from October to November.

 Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat:plant and flower Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid, sunny climate, avoid shade, need adequate sunshine time especially during the flowering period. Cold tolerance, slightly drought tolerance, avoid waterlogging, like fertilizer. The soil requirement is not strict, it can grow in area of high terrain, soil with deep soil layer, rich in humus, loose fertile, good drainage is appropriate for cultivation. It can grow in slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soils.

 Characters of herbs: There are five kinds of common chrysanthemum flowers are introduced, they are Tribute Chrysanthemum or Gong Juhua, Chu-Chrysanthemum or Chu Juhua, Huai Chrysanthemum or Huai Juhua, Bo-Chrysanthemum or Bo Juhua, Hang Chrysanthemum or Hang Juhua.

 Chrysanthemum flower herb:Gong Juhua The Tribute Chrysanthemum is oblate or irregular globular, with a diameter of 1.5 ~ 2.5 cm. Ligulate flowers are white or off-white, rising obliquely, the upper part is reflexed, and the edges are slightly curled and shrunk, usually without glandular spots; Tubular flowers are few and exserted.

 Chrysanthemum flower herb:Chu Juhua The Chu-Chrysanthemum is irregularly spherical or oblate with a diameter of 1.5 ~ 2.5 cm. Ligulate flowers are off-white, irregularly twisted, rolled in, with shrinking edges, and sometimes light brown glandular spots can be seen; Tubular flowers are mostly hidden.

 Chrysanthemum flower herb:Huai Juhua The Huai Chrysanthemum is irregularly spherical or oblate with a diameter of 1.5 ~ 2.5 cm. Most of them are ligulate flowers, which are off-white or yellow, irregularly twisted, rolled in, and the edges shrink, and sometimes glandular spots can be seen; Tubular flowers are mostly hidden.

 Chrysanthemum flower herb:Bo Juhua The Bo-Chrysanthemum is inverted conical or cylindrical, sometimes slightly flattened and fan-shaped, with a diameter of 1.5 ~ 3 cm and discrete. The involucre is disc shape; The involucral bracts are 3-4 layers, oval or elliptic, herbaceous, yellow-green or brown-green, the external surface is covered by pilose, and membranous at the margin. The receptacle is hemispherical, without stipules or stipules. Ligulate flowers with several layers, pistillate flower, located in the periphery, off-white, stiff, uplifted, longitudinally contracted, golden glandular spots scattered; Tubular flowers are numerous, bisexual, located in the center, hidden by ligulate flowers, yellow, 5-toothed at the top. Achenes are undeveloped, with no pappus. The herb is light, soft, crisp when dry. It smells fragrant, tastes sweet and slightly bitter.

 Chrysanthemum flower herb:Hang Juhua The Hang Chrysanthemum is dish-shaped or oblate, with a diameter of 2.5 ~ 4 cm and a constant number of connected pieces. Tongue-shaped flowers are off-white or yellow, flat or slightly folded, adhered to each other, usually without glandular spots; Tubular flowers are numerous, exserted.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.significantly dilate coronary arteries; ②.increase coronary blood flow; ③.improve myocardial oxygen consumption; ④.antipyretic, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects; ⑤.inhibitory effects on influenza virus, leptospira, and a variety of pathogenic bacteria.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dissipate heat, clearing liver and improving vision(removing liver-fire for improving eyesight), calm the liver Yang, clear heat and detoxification, indicated for headache, dizziness, red eyes, dysphoria with smothery sensation in the chest and heart, furuncle, boils, pyogenic infections, dizziness of wind, alcohol poison and malignant boil.

 Administration of Chrysanthemum Flower(Jú Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Chrysanthemum Flower(Jú Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams;②.water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),brewing tea or prepare into pill,powder;③.water decoction,10~15 grams, or prepare to pill, powder, or brewing tea.Externally: proper amount, wash with water decoction, or mashed and apply stick.

Pungent-cool Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and cool in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-heat exterior syndrome.
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