Introduction of Niu Banɡ Zi:Fructus Arctii or Burdock Fruit.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Burdock Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Arctium lappa L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Burdock Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Arctii(Burdock Fruit).

Burdock Fruit:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Niú Bànɡ Zǐ.
 English Name: Burdock Fruit, Great Burdock Achene.
 Latin Name: Fructus Arctii.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Arctii is the dried ripe fruit of great burdock, Arctium lappa L., used (1).to disperse wind and heat in the treatment of wind-heat affliction, (2).to promote eruption for measles, and (3).to counteract toxins and reduce swelling for boils, sores, mumps and erysipelas. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Arctii, Burdock Fruit, Niú Bànɡ Zǐ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Arctii (Burdock Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of the Arctium lappa L., it is a plant of the Arctium genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family) of the Asterales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

Arctium lappa L.

 Arctium lappa L:plant Botanical description: Arctium lappa L. is a biennial herb, the plant grows up to 1~2 meter high. The root is thick, fleshy, and conical. The stem is upright, branched at the upper part, with purple-brown, vertical stripe edges. Basal leaves are big, clustered, with long petioles; stem leaves are alternative; leaf blade is ovate-oblong or broad-ovate, 20~50 cm long, 15~40 cm wide, the apex is obtuse, with sharp spines, base usually is cordate, entire-edge or with irregular wavy tiny serrate, the upper surface is green or dark green. With sparse hairs, the undersurface is covered with gray-white pubescence. Capitulum (flower head) cluster on the branch top or arranged in corymbose, 2~4 cm in diameter, the peduncle is 3~7 cm long, the surface has shallow grooves, densely covered with fine hairs; involucre is a spheric shape, bracts are numerous, imbricate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, the apex is hooked and curved; Flower is small, red-purple, are all tubular flowers, hermaphrodite, corolla apex is 5-lobed, synantherous stamen 5, alternate with corolla lobes, anther is yellow; the ovary is inferior, 1-locule, the apex is disc-shape, covered with a short setiform pappus; Style is thin and long, stigma is 2-lobed. Achene is oblong or oblong-obovate, taupe (grayish-brown), with vertical grooves, and pappus is spiked, light yellowish-brown. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Arctium lappa L:leaves and flower Arctium lappa L. is usually cultivated. The plant in wild fields usually grows on the wild roadside, ditch side, barren land, sunny grass land on slopes, forest edge, and near village and town. It is distributed in the north, northwest, middle south, southwest, the lower reaches of the Yangtze river, etc.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid climate, is resistant to cold and drought, afraid of water logging. It is appropriate to cultivate in sandy loam with a deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil with good drainage. The suitable temperature for sprouting is 20~25 °C (Celsius, or 68~77 degrees Fahrenheit), germination percentage is 70%~90%.

 Characters of herbs: The herb achene is long obovate, both sides are truncated, slightly flat, slightly curved, 5~7 mm long, and 2~3 mm in diameter. The surface is grayish brown or light grayish brown, with numerous black spots and obvious vertical edges. The apex is wider, there is a ring, and there is dotted style residue in the center; The base is slightly narrow, with round fruit stalk marks. The texture of the herb is hard, after broken two cotyledons are visible, yellowish white, and oily. The achene is odorless, the seed has a special smell, tastes bitter and slightly pungent, and slightly tingling after a while. The herb of better grade has big grain, full, taupe (grayish-brown).

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic, anti-tumor, lower blood sugar, and other effects; ②.inhibitory effect on pneumococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and a variety of pathogenic skin fungi; ③.Arctiin can paralyze the heart, uterus, intestines, bones, and motor nerves in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Disperse wind and heat, open the inhibited lung-energy and prompt eruption, reduce swelling and detoxification, relieve sore throat and eliminate stagnation, indicated for wind-heat cough, sore throat, macula not erupt, urticaria itching, carbuncle swollen ulcer sore poison.

 Administration of Fructus Arctii (Niú Bànɡ Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Arctii (Niú Bànɡ Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.1.5~3 qian (4.5~9 grams), water decoction,or prepare into powder.Externally:mouth wash with water decoction; ③.water decoction, 5~10 grams, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:mouthwash with water decoction.

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