Introduction of Man Jinɡ Zi:Fructus Viticis or Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Vitex simplicifolia Cham., ②.Vitex trifolia L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Viticis(Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit).

dried herbs of Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit Pin Yin Name: Màn Jīnɡ Zǐ.
 English Name: Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Viticis.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Viticis is the dried ripe fruit of simple-leaved chaste tree, Vitex simplicifolia Cham., or three-leaved chaste tree, Vitex trifolia L., used for treating wind-heat affliction with fever and headache, acute conjunctivitis, blurred vision and dizziness. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Viticis, Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit, Màn Jīnɡ Zǐ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Viticis (Shrub Chaste-tree Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of the (1). Vitex simplicifolia Cham., or (2). Vitex trifolia L., they are plants of the Vitex genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Vitex simplicifolia Cham.

 flowering plant of Vitex trifolia L. var. simplicifolia,with green leaves and pink flowers Botanical description: The plant, Vitex trifolia L. var. simplicifolia Cham is also known as Vitex rotundifolia L.f. or Vitex ovata Thunb, is commonly known as Simplicifolia Vitex, Simple leaf Vitex, Vitex rotundifolia L or Dan Ye Manjing, deciduous shrubs, the plant grows up to about 2 meters high. The whole plant is covered with gray-white pilose. The main stem crawls on the ground, the adventitious roots often grow on the nodes, the young branches are tetrahedral (four-sided), and the old branches are nearly circular. Simple leaves are opposite, have short petioles; the leaf blade is obovate to elliptic, the apex is obtuse, the base is cuneate, entire, 2.5~5 cm long, 1.5~3 cm wide, the surface is greenish, the undersurface is pink white; lateral veins are in 8 pairs.

 Panicles are terminal; the calyx is campanulate, the apex is 5-toothed; the corolla is mauve (lilac), the apex is 5-lobed, 1 lobe of undersurface is largest, broadly ovate, with hairs on the lower and middle part of the internal surface; 4 stamens, extending outside corolla tube; the ovary is globose, densely covered with glandular dots, stigma is 2-lobed.

 Drupes (drupe fruits) are spherical, about 5-7 mm in diameter, have persistent calyx. Its flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers to grow on beaches and lakeside, it is also cultivated. The plant is distributed in the north, lower reaches of the Yellow River, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, southeast of China.

 The plant has strong adaptability, it has no strict requirement for a growing environment. But it prefers a warm and moist climate, and grows well in loose and fertile sandy loam. The plant is tolerant to saline and alkaline, and could not grow well in acid soil.

 Characters of herbs: The fruit is spherical, 4~6 mm in diameter. The surface is black or brown, covered with white pruina-like fuzz, with 4 longitudinal thin grooves. The apex is slightly concave, there are fall-off style marks, there are persistent calyx and short carpopodiums (fruit stalks) growing at the lower part. The persistent calyx wrap 1/3 ~ 2/3 of the fruit length, and the endpoint is 5-dentate, of which 2-dentate at one side, and densely covered with fine fuzz. The herb is light, and the texture of the herb is firm and not easily broken. The cortex of the fracture surface is grayish yellow, with tan (chocolate brown) points arranged in rings, 4-loculed, 1 seed in each loculus or is undeveloped. The seed kernel is yellow-white and oily (oleosus). The herb has a fragrant aroma, it tastes slightly pungent and light bitter. The herb of a better grade has big grains, full, of fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Sedative and analgesic effect; ②. Antipyretic effect; ③.inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus giganteus.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate heat, clear head and eyes. The herb is indicated for wind-heat cold and headache, gingival swelling and pain, red eyes, tears, dark eyes, dim eyesight, dizziness, and giddiness.

 Administration of Fructus Viticis (Màn Jīnɡ Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Viticis (Màn Jīnɡ Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.2~3 qian (about 6~10 grams), water decoction; infusing in wine or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.6~10 grams,water decoction, or infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction.

(2).Vitex trifolia L.

 a cluster of flowering plants of Vitex trifolia L. Botanical description: The plant, Vitex trifolia L is commonly known as Vitex trifolia, or Manjing, deciduous shrubs, rarely small trees, the shrub grows up to 1.5~5 meters high, and scented; branchlets are quadrangular, densely pubescent. Trifoliolate leaves, opposite, sometimes occasionally has a single leaf on lateral branches; petioles are 1~3 cm long; leaflets are ovate, long obovate or obovate-oblong, 2.5~9 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, the apex is blunt or mucronate, the base is cuneate, entire, the surface is green, glabrous or puberulent, the undersurface is covered densely with grayish-white fuzz, lateral veins are in 8 pairs, slightly raised on both sides, leaflets are sessile or sometimes midvein base extending to form a short stalk.

 Panicles are terminal, 3~15 cm long, the peduncle is densely covered with gray-white fluff; the calyx is campaniform (bell-shaped), the apex is 5-lobed, covered with gray-white fluffy; the corolla is mauve (lilac) or bluish violet (royal purple), 6~10 mm long, the outer surface is piliferous, corolla tube inside and throat part is densely villous, the apex is 5-lobed, bilabiate (2-lipped); 4 stamens, protruding outside of corolla; ovary has dense glandular points; styles are glabrous, stigma is 2-lobed.

 Drupes (drupe fruits) are orbicular, about 5 mm in diameter, and turn black at maturity; the fruit calyx is persistent, the outside is grayish tomentose. Its flowering period is in July, and the fruiting period is from September to November.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows near the sea, beach, riverside, plain, and field near the village. The plant is distributed in the southeast, southwest area, and Zhujiang river area of China.



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