Introduction of Xin Yi:Flos Magnoliae or Biond Magnolia Flower.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Biond Magnolia Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 3 plant species, ①.Magnolia biondii Pamp., ②.Magnolia denudata Desr., ③.Magnolia sprengeri Pamp., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plants, the features of the herb Biond Magnolia Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Magnoliae(Biond Magnolia Flower).

Biond Magnolia Flower Pin Yin Name: Xīn Yí.
 English Name: Lily Magnolia, or Biond Magnolia Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Magnoliae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Magnoliae is the dried flower bud of Magnolia biondii Pamp., Magnolia denudata Desr., or Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.(family Magnoliaceae), used for treating stuffy nose and nasal discharge in cases of rhinitis and nasosinusitis. The herb is commonly known as Flos Magnoliae, Biond Magnolia Flower, Xīn Yí.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Magnoliae(Biond Magnolia Flower) is the dried flower bud of the Magnolia biondii Pamp., Magnolia denudata Desr., or Magnolia sprengeri Pamp., they are plants of the Magnolia L. Genus, the Magnoliaceae family of the Magnoliales Juss order.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Magnoliae(Biond Magnolia Flower, or Xīn Yí) as the dried flower bud of :(1). Magnolia biondii Pamp., (2). Magnolia denudata Desr., or (3). Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Magnolia biondii Pamp.


 Magnolia biondii Pamp.:leaves and branches Botanical description: This species is also known as Wang Chun Yu Lan. Deciduous trees, 6~12 meters tall. Branchlets are yellow-green or pale-brown, smooth or hairy at part near to the tip; Winter bud ovate, bracts dense with pale yellow fuzz. Single leaves are alternate; Petiole 1~2 cm long, base with stipitus marks; Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 10~18 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded or cuneate, entire, surface is dark green, smooth, abaxially pale green, sparsely hairy along veins. Flowers first leaves open, single branch apex, sparse axillary, campanulate, 6~8 cm in diameter, white, purplish-red outside base, aromatic; 3 perianth of outer wheel, calyx flake nearly linear, about a quarter of the length of petals; 3 tepals of middle and inner wheel, spatulate, 4~8 cm long, 2.5 cm wide; Stamens are numerous, spirally arranged in the lower part of elongated receptacle; Pistils numerous, arranged above receptacle. Aggregate cylindrical, slightly twisted, 8~13 cm long; wood. Seeds obovate. Its flowering period is from February to march, fruiting from September.

 Magnolia biondii Pamp.:flowers Ecological environment: the tree grows in forests on slopes between 400 and 2,400 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the Qinba mountainous area, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant was native to the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, it is now cultivated all over the country of China. The plant prefers light, cold-resistant.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is oval, like a brush head, 1.2 ~ 2.5 cm long and 0.8 ~ 1.5 cm in diameter. The base is often with a short stalk, about 5 mm long, and the stalk has off-white punctate lenticels. Bracts have 2 ~ 3 layers, 2 pieces in each layer, and there are small scale buds between the two layers of bracts. The outer surface of bracts is densely covered with gray-white or gray-green fuzz, and the inner surface is brown and glabrous. 9 tepals, brown, 3 outer tepals, strip-shaped, about 1/4 the length of the inner two floral whorls, sepal-shaped, 6 inner tepals, 3 in each floral whorl, arranged in a wheel shape. Stamens and pistils are numerous and arranged spirally. It is light and crisp. The herb smells aromatic, it tastes pungent, cool and slightly bitter. The flowers with big buds, not open, yellow and green color and no branch or stem, are the best in quality.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-hypertensive effect; ②.Effects on the uterus; ③.Other effects: inhibitory effect on a variety of pathogenic fungi, contractile effect on the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa, promote the absorption of secretions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Indicated for headache, sinusitis, etc., have the effect of reducing blood pressure.

 Administration of Flos Magnoliae(Xīn Yí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Magnoliae(Xīn Yí)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams, Externally:proper amount;②.water decoction,1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams), or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into fine powder, stuff nose, or infusing in water and distilled and drop to nose;③.water decoction, 3~10 grams, or decoct wrapped, or prepare to pill or powder. Externally:proper amount, grinded into fine powder and stuff nose, or drop to nose with distilled liquid.

(2).Magnolia denudata Desr.


 Magnolia denudata Desr. Botanical description: This species is also known as Yu Lan. The difference between this species and magnolia wangchun lies in: the branchlets are thick and fluffy; Leaf blade usually obovate, broadly obovate, apex broadly rounded, truncated or slightly concave, often shortly acute, base cuneate, petiole and underleaf with white pilose. 9 perianths, white, sometimes red outside base, obovate-oblong. Its flowering period is from February to march, fruiting from August to September.

 Magnolia denudata Desr. Ecological environment:  the tree is widely cultivated in the mixed forest of evergreen broad-leaved trees and deciduous broad-leaved trees below the altitude of 1,200 meters. It mainly distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Anhui, Jiangxi, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The flower bud is 1.5~3 cm long, diameter 1~1.5 cm, the basal branches are thick, and the lenticels are light brown. The outer surface of bracts is densely covered with gray-white or gray-green fuzz. 9 tepals, inner and outer whorls, are the same type. The flowers with big buds, not open, yellow and green color and no branch or stem, are the best in quality.

(3).Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.


 Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. Botanical description: This species is also known as Wu Dang Yu Lan. It is distinguished from the above two kinds of leaves by the sharp tip, sharp acuminate or small pointed tip with protrusion. 12~14 tepals, rose-red outside, lighter inside, with deep purple streaks. Its flowering period is in March, fruiting in June~July.

 Ecological environment:  the tree grows in the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest with an altitude of 1,300-2,000 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the Qinba mountainous area, the west middle reaches area of the Yellow River, China.

 Characters of herbs: The bud is 3~4 cm long, 1~2 cm in diameter, the basal branches are thick and strong, and lenticels are reddish brown. The outer surface of bracts is densely covered with yellowish or yellowish green fuzz, and some outermost bracts have fallen off and become dark brown. 10~15 tepals, and there is no significant difference between inner and outer whorls. The flowers with big buds, not open, yellow and green color and no branch or stem, are the best in quality.
 
Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xin Yi:Flos Magnoliae or Biond Magnolia Flower.

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