Introduction of Canɡ er Zi:Fructus Xanthii or Siberian Cocklebur Fruit.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Siberian Cocklebur Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder, ②.Xanthium mongolicum Kitag., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Siberian Cocklebur Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit).

Siberian Cocklebur Fruit Pin Yin Name: Cānɡ ěr Zǐ.
 English Name: Siberian Cocklebur Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Xanthii.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter, mild toxicity.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Xanthii is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.(family Compositae), used to disperse wind, eliminate damp, relieve nasal congestion and alleviate pain for the treatment of wind-cold affliction of a stuffy nose, rhinitis, nasosinusitis, urticaria with pruritus, and rheumatism.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin, it is a plant of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Siberian Cocklour Fruit, Fruit of Siberian Cocklebur, Fructus Xanthii, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ) as the dried ripe fruit of:(1). Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder, (2). Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. They are plants of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder.

 Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder. Botanical description: Annual herbs, 20~90 cm high. Roots are spindle-shaped, branched or unbranched. Stem erect unbranched or rarely branched, lower cylindric, upper longitudinally furrowed, gray with strigose hairs. Leaves alternate; It has a long stalk, 3~11 cm long; Leaf blade triangular-ovate or epicardial, 4~9 cm long, 5~10 cm wide, entire, or 3~5 inconspicuously lobed, first acute or obtuse, base 3-veined, above the green, below pale, scabrous or short white pubescent. Inflorescence nearly sessile, aggregated, unisexual; Male inflorescence globose, involucral bracts, involucral bracts small, 1 row, densely puberulent, receptacle columnar, receptacle inverted, florets tubular, apex 5-dentate, 5 stamens, anthers oblong-linear; Female inflorescence ovate, involucral bracts 2-3 rows, outer bracts small, inner bracts large, saccate ovate, 2-loculate hard, outside with barbed hairs, apex with 2 conical tips, florets 2, ovary within involucre, each loculus with 1 flower, style linear, protruding outside involucre. Involucral bracts with mature achene become firm, ovate or elliptic, margin with beak 12~15 mm long, 4~7 mm wide, green, yellowish or reddish-brown, beak 1.5~2.5 mm long, 2 achenes, obovate, achene containing 1 seed. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm slightly humid climate, it is appropriate to cultivate in the loose fertile, sandy soil of good drainage.

 drawing of rabbit and Xanthium sibiricum. Ecological environment:  the plant grows in plains, hills, low mountains, wilderness, roadside, ditches, fields, grasslands, villages, etc. It distributes throughout the areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: This herb is spindle-shaped or oval, 1~1.5 cm long and its diameter is 0.4~0.7 cm. The surface is yellow-brown or yellow-green, with hook spines on the whole part, two thick spines on the top, separated or connected, and there are fruit stalk marks on the base. It is hard and tough, with mediastinal membrane in the center of cross-section, two chambers, one achene in each chamber. Achenes are slightly spindle-shaped, flat on one side, with a protruding styloid base at the top, thin, gray-black, with longitudinal stripes. Seed coat is membranous, light gray, 2 cotyledons, oily. The herb smells slight, tastes slightly bitter. The herb which grain is big, full, and yellow-brown is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.lowering blood sugar and relieving cough; ②.inhibitory effect on some bacteria and fungi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispelling wind, relieve exterior syndrome, free nasal orifices, eliminating dampness and analgesia, indicated for wind chill headache, nasosinusitis(acute and chronic sinusitis), tooth pain, wind chill rheumatism, limb spasmatic pain, scabies, itch.

 Administration of Fructus Xanthii(Cānɡ ěr Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Xanthii(Cānɡ ěr Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:Fructus Xanthii,3~9 grams,Siberian Cocklebur herb,1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams);②.1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),water decoction, or prepare to pill,powder;③.3~10 grams, water decoction, or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick, or wash with water decoction.

(2).Xanthium mongolicum Kitag.

 Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. Botanical description: This species is distinguished from xanthium by an isolated achene involucre elliptic, with a beak 18~20 mm long, 8~10 mm wide, with a relatively sparse involucre spine outside, a hard involucre spine 2~5.5 mm (usually 5 mm) long, thickened at the base.

 Ecological environment:  It grows on arid hillsides or sandy wasteland. It is distributed in north area of China.
Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
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