Introduction of Canɡ er Zi:Fructus Xanthii or Siberian Cocklebur Fruit.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

 
Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit).

Siberian Cocklebur Fruit Pin Yin Name: Cānɡ ěr Zǐ.
 English Name: Siberian Cocklebur Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Xanthii.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter, mild toxicity.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Xanthii is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.(family Compositae), used to disperse wind, eliminate damp, relieve nasal congestion and alleviate pain for the treatment of wind-cold affliction of a stuffy nose, rhinitis, nasosinusitis, urticaria with pruritus, and rheumatism.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin, it is a plant of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Siberian Cocklour Fruit, Fruit of Siberian Cocklebur, Fructus Xanthii, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ) as the dried ripe fruit of:(1). Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder, (2). Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. They are plants of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder.


 Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder. Botanical description: Annual herbs, 20~90 cm high. Roots are spindle-shaped, branched or unbranched. Stem erect unbranched or rarely branched, lower cylindric, upper longitudinally furrowed, gray with strigose hairs. Leaves alternate; It has a long stalk, 3~11 cm long; Leaf blade triangular-ovate or epicardial, 4~9 cm long, 5~10 cm wide, entire, or 3~5 inconspicuously lobed, first acute or obtuse, base 3-veined, above the green, below pale, scabrous or short white pubescent. Inflorescence nearly sessile, aggregated, unisexual; Male inflorescence globose, involucral bracts, involucral bracts small, 1 row, densely puberulent, receptacle columnar, receptacle inverted, florets tubular, apex 5-dentate, 5 stamens, anthers oblong-linear; Female inflorescence ovate, involucral bracts 2-3 rows, outer bracts small, inner bracts large, saccate ovate, 2-loculate hard, outside with barbed hairs, apex with 2 conical tips, florets 2, ovary within involucre, each loculus with 1 flower, style linear, protruding outside involucre. Involucral bracts with mature achene become firm, ovate or elliptic, margin with beak 12~15 mm long, 4~7 mm wide, green, yellowish or reddish-brown, beak 1.5~2.5 mm long, 2 achenes, obovate, achene containing 1 seed. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm slightly humid climate, it is appropriate to cultivate in the loose fertile, sandy soil of good drainage.

 drawing of rabbit and Xanthium sibiricum. Ecological environment:  the plant grows in plains, hills, low mountains, wilderness, roadside, ditches, fields, grasslands, villages, etc. It distributes throughout the areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: Fruit enveloped in involucre, fusiform or ovoid, 1~1.5 cm long, 0.4~0.7 cm in diameter. Surface yellowish-brown or yellowish-green, all with hooked spines, apex with 2 coarser spines, detached or connate, base bearing sessile marks. Hard and tough, cross-section with a septum, 2 cells, 1 achene each. Achene slightly fusiform, one side flatter, apex with a raised stylopodium, pericarp thin, grayish-black, longitudinally striated. Seed coat membranous, light gray, longitudinally striated; 2 cotyledons, oily. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste. With grain big, full, color yellow-brown is preferred.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.lowering blood sugar and relieving cough; ②.inhibitory effect on some bacteria and fungi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispelling wind, relieve exterior syndrome, free nasal orifices, eliminating dampness and analgesia, indicated for wind chill headache, nasosinusitis(acute and chronic sinusitis), tooth pain, wind chill rheumatism, limb spasmatic pain, scabies, itch.

 Administration of Fructus Xanthii(Cānɡ ěr Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Xanthii(Cānɡ ěr Zǐ)
TCM Books: Internally:Fructus Xanthii,3~9 grams,Siberian Cocklebur herb,1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams)(CP), or 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),water decoction, or prepare to pill,powder(DTCM),or 3~10 grams, water decoction, or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick, or wash with water decoction(CHMM).

(2).Xanthium mongolicum Kitag.


 Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. Botanical description: This species is distinguished from xanthium by an isolated achene involucre elliptic, with a beak 18~20 mm long, 8~10 mm wide, with a relatively sparse involucre spine outside, a hard involucre spine 2~5.5 mm (usually 5 mm) long, thickened at the base.

 Ecological environment:  It grows on arid hillsides or sandy wasteland. It is distributed in north area of China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Canɡ er Zi:Fructus Xanthii or Siberian Cocklebur Fruit.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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