Introduction of Bai Shu:White Atractylodes Rhizome,Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome,or Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Pin Yin Name: Bái Shù.
English Name: Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, White Atractylodes Rhizome
Latin Name: Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.
Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes bitter, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae is the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., used (1).to replenish Qi, invigorate the spleen for the treatment of general weakness, anorexia, dyspepsia, and chronic diarrhea, (2).to stop excessive sweating, and (3).to calm the fetus when treating threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Bái Shù.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome(Bai Shu) as root and rhizome of the Asteraceae family Atractylodes genus plant species (1). Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.[A-tractylis macrocephala(Doidz.)Hand.-Mand.-Mazz.]. It is a plant of the Atractylodes DC. genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.
Botanical description: The Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., is a plant of the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) and Atractylodes genus, perennial herb. Rhizomes are hypertrophic, massive. Stem height is 50~80 cm, the upper branch, the base of the lignification. The lower stem has a long handle, 3-lobed or pinnatifid 5-lobed, lobes are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5~8 cm long, 1.5~3 cm wide, apex is long acuminate, base is attenuate, margin is long or short needle-like margin, hair or appressed spiny teeth, apex lobes are larger; petiole upper stem is short, narrowly lanceolate, split or not split, length 4~10 cm, width 1.5~4 cm. Capitulum is solitary in the top, about 2.5 cm, 5~8 layers of total bracts, membranous, imbricate arrangement, slightly pubescent outside, outer is short, ovoid, apex is obtuse, the innermost layer is multi-column, apex is obtuse, elongation; flower majority, all tubular flowers, corolla is purple, about 1.5 cm, 5 stamens, style is slender. Achenes are oblong-elliptic, densely yellow-white tomentose, slightly flattened, ca. 7.5 mm; crested hair ca. 1.3 cm, pinnate, dirty white, base united.
Leaves are alternate, central stems and leaves are 3~6 cm long petiole, usually 3-5 pinnately split; rarely complicated and not cracked leaves are long oval. Lateral lobes are 1~2 pairs, oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong, 4.5~7 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide; apical lobes are larger than lateral lobes, oblong ovate, oblong or elliptic; From the middle stems and leaves up and down, the leaves are gradually smaller, with the central stem and leaves the same split, then the lower part of the inflorescence does not crack, oval or oblong, sessile; or most stems and leaves are not cracked, 3~5 pinnate lobes. All leaves are thin, papery, both surfaces are green, glabrous, margins or lobes are with long or short acuminate ciliate or spiked.
The top of the head of single flower stems, plants usually have 6~10 heads, but does not form a clear inflorescence arrangement. Bract is green, 3~4 cm long, pinnately cracked. Large involucre, broadly bell-shaped, 3~4 cm in diameter. The total bracts are 9~10 layers, imbricate arrangement; the outer layer and the outer layer is long oval or triangular, 6~8 mm long; middle is lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 11~16 mm long; the innermost layer is wide linear, 2 cm long, the top part is purple. All bracts are apically blunt, margin has white spider silk hair. Small flowers are 1.7 cm, purple, crown eaves have 5 deep clefts.
Achenes are conical, 7.5 mm long, densely white long, straight hairs that are forward-facing. Crested bristles are feathery, dirty white, 15 cm long, the base is combined into a ring. The flowering period is from September to October, the fruiting period is from October to December.
Ecological Environment: The Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., grows in the mountains, hilly areas, wild species have almost disappeared. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China provinces and cultivated in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, wild species grow in Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces, etc.
Growth characteristics: The Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. prefers a cool climate, afraid of high temperature and humidity environment, not strict on the soil, but prefers good drainage, deep soil, acid, alkali, and light clay.
Characters of herbs: The rhizome is an irregular hypertrophic lump, its length is 3~13 cm, its diameter is 1.5~7 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or taupe brown, with nodular protrusions, intermittent longitudinal wrinkles and furrows, fibrous root marks, and residual vegetative stem base and bud marks at the top part. The texture of the herb is hard and not easy to break; The fracture surface is uneven, yellow-white to light brown, with brownish-yellow dotted oil chambers scattered, and the fracture surface of the baked dried herb is keratinous, dark, or deeply cracked. The herb has a delicate fragrance, it tastes sweet and slightly pungent, and slightly sticky when chewed. The herb of better grade is large, its texture is solid and firm, the fracture surface is yellow and white, with a strong fragrance.
Pharmacological actions: ①.effect on gastrointestinal movement; ②.inhibitory effect of uterine smooth muscle; ③. anti-aging effect; ④.The herb also has a diuretic effect, lower blood sugar level, roborant effect, anticoagulant effect, dilate blood vessels, anti-tumor and inhibit cancer cell function, antibacterial effect (inhibition of Epidermophyton floccosum, star nocadia, meningococcus, Bacillus typhi, Bacillus paratyphosus A, Shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and so on, but no antiseptic effect), promote hemopoietic function, promoting protein synthesis, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Strengthening the spleen and replenishing Qi, invigorate spleen, eliminating dampness and alleviate water retention, regulating the middle, hidroschesis (relieve perspiration), miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for spleen deficiency and poor appetite, Qi weakness of spleen and stomach, no appetite (poor appetite), poor appetite and lower abdomen distension, lassitude and short breath, abdominal distension and diarrhea, loose stool, deficient distention, phlegm and retained fluid, dizziness and palpitation, dizziness, fluid retention stagnating in the interior, jaundice, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, warm arthralgia and aching pain, difficult urination, edema, spontaneous perspiration, Qi deficiency and spontaneous perspiration, fetal irritability, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bái Shù):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bái Shù)
①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);or prepare to ointment, or pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~15 grams;or prepare to ointment, or pill, powder.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae should not be used with peach, plum, pakchoi seedling, finmeat, black carp.
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1.Introduction of Bai Shu:White Atractylodes Rhizome,Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome,or Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.