Introduction of Bai Shu:White Atractylodes Rhizome,Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome,or Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae(Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome).

Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Bái Shù.
 English Name: Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, White Atractylodes Rhizome
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.
 Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae is the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., used (1).to replenish Qi, invigorate the spleen for the treatment of general weakness, anorexia, dyspepsia, and chronic diarrhea, (2).to stop excessive sweating, and (3).to calm the fetus when treating threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Bái Shù.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (Bai Shu) as root and rhizome of the Asteraceae family Atractylodes genus plant species (1). Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.[Atractylis macrocephala(Koidz.)Hand.-Mand.-Mazz.]. It is a plant of the Atractylodes DC. genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.

 Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.:drawing of plant parts Botanical description: The plant, Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., is a plant of the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) and Atractylodes genus, it is also known as Atractylis macrocephala (Koidz.) Hand.-Mazz., Bái Shù, or Yú Shù. A perennial herb. Rhizomes are hypertrophic, lumps. Stems are 50~80 cm high, the upper part is branched, and the base is lignified. The lower stem has a long stalk, leaves are 3-lobed or pinnate 5-parted, lobes are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5~8 cm long, 1.5~3 cm wide, the apex is long acuminate, the base is attenuated, the edge has long or short needle-like margins, hairs or appressed spiny-toothed, apex lobes are bigger; petioles on the upper stem gradually turn short, narrowly lanceolate, split or undivided, length is 4~10 cm, width is 1.5~4 cm.

 Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.:growing plants Capitulum (flower head) is solitary and grows on the top of the branch, about 2.5 cm long, width is about 3.5 cm, basal bracts are leafy (leaf-like), 3-5 cm long, pinnate lobes are spinous; phyllary is in 5–8 layers, membraneous, imbricate, outside is slightly puberulose (puberulent), out layer is short, oval (egg-shaped), the apex is blunt, the inner layer is in many lines, multirow (multiple columns), apex is blunt, elongated; many flowers, all are tubular flower (tubiform floret), corolla is prunus (violet red), about 1.5 cm long, 5 stamens, style is thin and long.

 Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.:growing plants Achenes are oblong-elliptic, densely covered with yellowish-white fluff, slightly oblate (flat), about 7.5 mm long; pappus is about 1.3 cm long, pinnate, stained white (dirty white), base connate. Its flowering period is from September to October, the fruiting period is from October to December.

 Ecological Environment: Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., grows in mountainous region, and hilly areas, wild species have almost ceased out. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China provinces and cultivated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

 Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.:growing plants Growth characteristics: The plant, Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. prefers a cool climate, cold tolerance, afraid of high temperature and humidity environment, afraid of aridity. It is tolerant to low temperatures of -10 °C (Celsius, or 14 degrees Fahrenheit), growth is inhibited when the temperature is over 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit), and grows fast at temperatures 25-30 °C (Celsius, or 77–86 degrees Fahrenheit). The optimal temperature for the growth of rhizome is 26-28 °C (Celsius, or 78.8-82.4 degrees Fahrenheit), and the optimal temperature for seed sprouting is 25-30 °C (Celsius, or 77–86 degrees Fahrenheit). It is appropriate to choose high and dry slopy hillside fields, with deep soil layers, loose and fertile sandy loam with good drainage for cultivation, avoid continuous cropping, and better choose newly reclaimed land for cultivation. If it is planted in a cultivated field, it can be cultivated again 5 years later, or easily have disease. The previous crops are better to choose Gramineous crop, should not rotate with Cruciferae crops and nightshade family crops which are easily affected by Southern blight.

 Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome:herb slices of wild rootLargehead Atractylodes Rhizome:herb slices of cultivated root Characters of herbs: The rhizomes are irregular hypertrophic lumps and blocks, their length is 3~13 cm, and 1.5~7 cm in diameter. The surface is sallow (grayish yellow) or taupe brown, has tubercules (nodular protrusions), intermittent vertical wrinkles and grooves, and fibrous root marks, and has residual vegetative stem base and bud marks at the top end. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easy to break; The fracture surface is uneven, yellow-white to hazel (pale brown), with brownish-yellow dotted oil chambers scattered, and the fracture surface of oven-dried herbs is keratose, dark color, or has fissurings. The herb has a delicate fragrance, it tastes sweet and slightly pungent, and slightly sticky when chewed. The herb of a better grade is big, its texture is solid and firm, and the fracture surface is yellowish-white, with a strong fragrance.

 Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.:growing plants Pharmacological actions: ①.effect on gastrointestinal movement; ②.inhibitory effect of uterine smooth muscle; ③. anti-aging effect; ④.The herb also has a diuretic effect, lower blood sugar level, roborant effect, anticoagulant effect, dilate blood vessels, anti-tumor and inhibit cancer cell function, antibacterial effect (inhibition of Epidermophyton floccosum, star nocadia, meningococcus, Bacillus typhi, Bacillus paratyphosus A, Shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and so on, but no antiseptic effect), promote hemopoietic function, promoting protein synthesis, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Strengthening the spleen and replenishing Qi, invigorate spleen, eliminating dampness and alleviate water retention, regulating the middle, hidroschesis (relieve perspiration), miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for spleen deficiency and poor appetite, Qi weakness of spleen and stomach, no appetite (poor appetite), poor appetite and lower abdomen distension, lassitude and short breath, abdominal distension and diarrhea, loose stool, deficient distention, phlegm and retained fluid, dizziness and palpitation, dizziness, fluid retention stagnating in the interior, jaundice, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, warm arthralgia and aching pain, difficult urination, edema, spontaneous perspiration, Qi deficiency and spontaneous perspiration, fetal irritability, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bái Shù): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bái Shù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);or prepare to ointment, or pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~15 grams;or prepare to ointment, or pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae should not be used with peach, plum, pakchoi seedling, finmeat, black carp.

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  • 1.Introduction of Bai Shu:White Atractylodes Rhizome,Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome,or Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.

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