Introduction of Gan Cao:Licorice Root or Radix Glycyrrhizae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Licorice Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., ②.Glycyrrhiza glabra L., ③.Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Licorice Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Glycyrrhizae (Licorice Root).

Radix Glycyrrhizae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Gān Cǎo.
 English Name: Licorice Root, or Liquorice Root
 Latin Name: Radix Glycyrrhizae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Glycyrrhizae is the dried root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat., or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., used (1).to replenish Qi and tonify the heart for treating arrythmia in cases of heart Qi deficiency, (2).to tonify the spleen for treating lassitude, anorexia and loose bowels in cases of spleen insufficiency, (3).to relieve epigastric colic and spastic pain of the limbs, (4).to dispel phlegm and stop cough, (5).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating sore throat, boils, sores and herbs overdose, and (6).most frequently for modulating the ingredients in a prescription. The herb is commonly known as Radix Glycyrrhizae, Licorice Root, Gān Cǎo.

 Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.:flowering plant Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Liquorice Root (Gan Cao) as the root and rhizome of the plant species:(1). Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., or (2). Glycyrrhiza glabra L., or (3). Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal. They are plant species of the Glycyrrhiza Linn. Genus, the Fabaceae family(Leguminosae, Papilionaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Gān Cǎo. Perennial herb, grows up to 30~100 cm. Very thick and rhizomes, skin is reddish-brown. Stem is upright, with wood, white short hairs, and bristle-like glands. Odd-numbered complex leaf length is 8~20 cm; 7~17 leaflets, ovate or broadly ovate, 2~5 cm long, wide 1~3 cm, apex is pointed or blunt, base is rounded, both sides of short hair and glands; care leaves are broadly lanceolate, white cilia. Racemes are axillary, flowers are dense; calyx is campanulate, 5 calyx teeth, lanceolate, outside short hairs and prickly hairy glands; corolla is blue-purple, 1.4~2.5 cm, glabrous, flag is large, oval shaped, claw, keel flap is straight, shorter than the wing to defend, have long claw; stamens body, (9+1). Pods are stripe, curved sickle or ring, outside the dense hairy thorn. 4~8 seeds, kidney-shaped. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Ecological Environment: This species grows in the dry calcareous steppe, riverbank sandy soil, and other places. The plant is mainly distributed in the north, northwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The above ground parts of licorice die at the end of autumn every year, the roots and rhizome pass winter in the soil, the following spring from March to April, new buds grows from the roots, grow new branches and leaves, leaves are luxuriant from May to June, flowering and fruiting from June to July, pods mature in September. It resists cold, drought and prefers light, is the indicator plant of calcareous soil. It should be planted in sandy loam with a deep soil layer, good drainage, and low groundwater level, but not in areas with waterlogged low land, and high groundwater level. Soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) better is neutral or slightly alkaline, its growth is poor in acid soil.

 Licorice Root:sliced herb of wild rootLicorice Root:sliced herb of cultivated root Characters of herbs: The root is long cylindrical, with a length of 30~100 cm or 25~100 cm, and a diameter of 0.6~3.5 cm. The surface is reddish-brown, dark brown, or grayish brown, with obvious wrinkles, furrows and transverse lenticels, and sparse thin root marks, with different cortex tightness, and slight saggy in the center of the cut surface at both ends. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, the herb is heavy, the fracture surface is fibrous, yellow-white, powdery, and the fracture surface has obvious cambium ring and radial texture, with cracks. The rhizome is cylindrical, with bud marks on the surface and pith in the center of the fracture surface. The herb has a light odor, it tastes extremely sweet and special. The herb of better grade has tight cortex or bark, red-brown, the texture is solid and firm, the fracture surface is yellow-white, with sufficient powder content.

 Pharmacological actions: Glycyrrhetinic acid can inhibit myeloma transplantation in rats. A mixture of mono-ammonium glycyrrhizin, sodium glycyrrhetinic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives, has inhibitory effects on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma and sarcoma of mice. Other functions of licorice mainly include: ①.anti-ulcer effect; ②.affect absorption or inhibit gastric acid secretion; ③.spasmolysis effect on intestinal smooth muscle; ④.hepatoprotective effect, increase bile secretion; ⑤.effects on the cardiovascular system; ⑥.expectorant and antitussive effect on the respiratory system; ⑦.effects on the central nervous system; ⑧.adrenal corticosteroid action, glucocorticoid-like action; ⑨.effect on the genitourinary system; ⑩.effect on immune function; ⑾.antiviral action:glycyrrhizic acid, licorice polyphenols can destroy HIV cells, inhibiting HIV cell proliferation, licorice polysaccharide has obvious anti-vesicular stomatitis virus, adenovirus type 3, herpes simplex virus type 1, vaccinia virus, inhibits their activity, can significantly inhibit cell pathological changes, the tissue culture cells are protected; ⑿.antibacterial effect:licorice alcohol extract and glycyrrhetinic acid can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Amoeba, and Trichomonas in vitro; ⒀. detoxification; ⒁.anti-tumor effect:glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritin show inhibitory effects on cancer cells; ⒂.other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorating spleen and replenishing Qi, invigorating Qi and replenish the middle, clear heat and detoxification, dispel phlegm and relieve cough, moistening lung to stop cough, relaxing spasm and relieving pain, harmonize the middle and relaxing spasm, moistening the lung, detoxification, discharging fire and detoxification, coordinating the herb actions of a prescription. It is indicated for the weakness of the spleen and the stomach, lassitude and feebleness (tired, lack in strength), lassitude and poor appetite, thin muscle and sallow complexion(lean, emaciation, looks yellowing), palpitation and short breath, swelling and pain in the throat, cough with much phlegm, cough and asthma, epigastric and abdominal pain, loose stool, spasm of limbs and pain, hysteria, carbuncle swelling sores poison, congenital disease(infantile fetal toxicity: infants exposed to maternal heat toxins during pregnancy may be the cause of their susceptibility to sores and rashes after birth), alleviate toxicity of prescriptions, detoxify the medicine poisoning or food poisoning, etc.(Prepared licorice root: it is indicated for the weakness of the spleen and the stomach, poor appetite, abdominal pain and loose stool, lassitude and fever, atrophic lung disease and cough, palpitation, frightened epilepsy; Raw licorice root: it is indicated for swelling pain of the throat, peptic ulcer, carbuncle, gangrene and sore, detoxify herbal toxicity and food poisoning, etc.)

 Administration of Radix Glycyrrhizae(Gān Cǎo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Glycyrrhizae(Gān Cǎo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:2~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~3 qian (about 1.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder and mix, or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally: water decoction,2~6 grams, to coordinate the herb actions of a prescription better use smaller dosage, to use as the main herb in a prescription should use a little bigger dosage, could be up to around 10 grams; to use detoxification and poisoning rescue, could be up to 30~60 grams. Better use fried prepared herb in tonic prescriptions, better use the raw herb in prescription with clearing and purgation purpose. Externally: proper amount, wash or stain with water decoction; or prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be combined with Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, Euphorbia kansui.

(2).Glycyrrhiza glabra L.(Guang Guo Gan Cao).

 Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.:growing plant 02 Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Guāng Guǒ Gān Cǎo. Perennial herb, grow up to about 1 meter high. Stems and branches are scaly glandular and white pubescent. Odd-pinnately compound leaves are 5~14~20 cm; 9~17 leaflets, ovoid or oblong, 2~4 long, 0.8~2 cm wide, apex is often emarginate, pubescent above, densely petiole below scaly glandular; stipules are lanceolate. Flowers are lavender, dense, arranged into axillary spikes; calyx is bell-shaped, with 5 equal lanceolate calyx teeth, both inside and outside of calyx teeth are covered with white glandular hair; flag long oval, about 11 mm, flap is about 9 mm, the claw is not obvious, keel flap length is about 8 mm. Pod is flat, long and narrow oval, slightly curved, 20~30 mm long, 4~7 mm wide, glabrous, sometimes with a few obvious adenomas, 3~4 seeds. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological Environment: The species is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia, it is mainly distributed in Gansu, Xinjiang, and other northwest areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root and rhizomes are relatively firm in texture, some have branches. The bark is not coarse, the surface is mostly grayish brown, and the lenticels are thin and inconspicuous. The fracture surface is fibrous, with fewer cracks. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sweet.

(3).Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal.(Zhang Guo Gan Cao).

 Licorice Root:herb slices Botanical description: It is commonly known as Zhàng Guǒ Gān Cǎo. Perennial, the plant grows up to 50~120 cm high, sometimes thick and woody base. Stems are upright, often locally densely connected into pieces of yellowish-brown scales glands, glandular glabrous and pubescent, or rarely glabrous. Odd-pinnate leaves are 3~16 cm; 3~7 leaflets, oval, narrowly ovoid, oblong to oval, length is 1.5~5 cm, width is 0.6~2.8 cm, apex is pointed or blunt, base is all round shaped, the edge of the emblem of anti-roll, often obvious as a wave-like, the upper part is dark green, yellowish-brown gland, the lower part is bright green, with yellowish-green gland, when young, such as gelatinous, shiny, glabrous; petiole length is 1~4 mm. Racemes; flowers are small, purple, arranged loosely. Pod is oblong, short, 0.8~2 cm long, inflated, with or without dimples, puberulent and slightly inconspicuous adenoma. Seeds are small, 1~7. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological Environment: the plant grows in sands.

 Characters of herbs: The root and rhizomes are woody and thick, some have branches, the bark is coarse and rough, mostly are taupe brown to grayish brown. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, easy to moist. The fracture surface is light yellow or yellow, with more wood fibers and less powder. The herb tastes sweet or bitter. The rhizome has many bid thick adventitious buds.
Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata(Prepared Licorice Root).

Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhì Gān Cǎo.
 English Name: Prepared Licorice Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata.
 Property and flavor: neutral nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata is the processed Radix Glycyrrhizae, Licorice Root by stir-baking with honey, used to tonify the spleen and heart, and particularly used for treating arrhythmia. It is commonly known as Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata, Prepared Licorice Root, Zhì Gān Cǎo.

 Liquorice was one of the most widely known medicines in ancient history, and records of its use include Assyrian tablets of around 2,000 B.C. and Chinese herbals of the same period. Theophrastus of Lesbos, writing in the fourth century B.C. wrote that 'it has the property of quenching thirst if one holds it in the mouth'. Dioscorides gave the plant its botanical name (Greek glukos = sweet, riza = root). Its 13th-century English name was Lycorys, a corruption of Glycyrrhiza. The plant originated in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, but has been cultivated in Europe since at least the 16th century. In China, G. uralensis or Gan Cao, known as the great detoxifier, is thought to drive poisons from the system. It is also an important tonic, often called the grandfather of herbs. Gan Cao is used as an energy tonic, particularly for the spleen and stomach, and the root is added to many Chinese formulae to balance other herbs. It is also used for asthmatic coughs, as an antispasmodic and ulcer remedy, and to cool hot conditions. The dried root is given to children to promote muscle growth. Liquorice is often used as a method for disguising the taste of medicines and as a flavouring in confectionery.

 Medicinal efficacy: Replenish the spleen and harmonize the stomach, tonifying Qi and  restore pulse. It is indicated for weakness of spleen and stomach, lassitude and feebleness (tiredness, lack in strength), severe palpilation, intermittent pulse.

 Administration of Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (Zhì Gān Cǎo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (Zhì Gān Cǎo)
TCM Books: the same as licorice root.

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