Introduction of Wu Ling Zhi:Trogopterus Dung or Faeces Trogopterorum.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Trogopterus Dung, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its source two animal species, ①.Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards., ②.Pteromys volans L., with a detailed introduction to the features of these two animals species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment, habits and characteristics of these two animals species, the features of the herb Trogopterus Dung, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Faeces Trogopterorum(Trogopterus Dung).

dried herbs of Faeces Trogopterorum Pin Yin Name: Wǔ Línɡ Zhī.
 English Name: Trogopterus Dung.
 Latin Name: Faeces Trogopterorum.
 Property and flavor: warm, bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Faeces Trogopterorum is the dried feces of Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards, used to relieve pain by eliminating blood stasis mainly for the treatment of gastric and abdominal pain, and dysmenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Faeces Trogopterorum, Trogopterus Dung, Wǔ Línɡ Zhī.

 Source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Faeces Trogopterorum (Trogopterus Dung) as the dried feces of the animal (1).Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards., or (2).Pteromys volans L. The Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards., is an animal of the Trogopterus genus, the Sciuridae family (squirrel family) of the Rodentia order. The Pteromys volans L. is an animal of the Pteromys genus, the Sciuridae family (squirrel family) of the Rodentia order. These 2 small animals are introduced:

(1).Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards.

 a small Trogopterus Xanthipes craws on a tree bark Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards is commonly known as Trogopterus xanthipes, or Chén Zú Wú Shǔ (means orange foot flying squirrel) or Fù Chǐ Wú Shǔ. Its total length is about 54 cm, its body length is about 20~30 cm, and the tail is long and thick, almost equal to the length of the body. Its snout is short, the head is wide. Eyes are round and big, earlap is conspicuous, and the front and rear part of the ear base has a black thin and long tuft of hairs. The hind limb is longer than the forelimb, and has a hook claw; There are flying membranes between the limbs. Orange spots scatter on the front of the head and ears; dorsal body setae are grayish-yellowish brown, the base of the hair is charcoal gray (grayish-black), hairs of the upper part are yellowish, hairs on the tip are dark brown (black brown); Hairs on the back of the neck are yellow and more conspicuous than the back. Abdominal hair is ash gray (grayish-white) with a pale orange tip. The color of the leather diaphragm is the same as that of the ventral surface, but the lateral margin is fresh orange-yellow. The back of the tail is similar to the back of the body, but lighter, the tail is black, connected into a longitudinal pattern until the end. The back of the fore and hind feet is orange, but the hind feet are black.

  a flying Trogopterus Xanthipes at night Trogopterus Xanthipes is medium size, slightly larger than the red belly squirrel, weight is about 300~400 grams, body length is 30~34 cm, the tail is slightly flat, as long as the body, hind feet are 40~48 mm long, ears are 30~35 mm long. The head is round, and the eyes are big, the snout is short, and the ears are large and round.

 a flying Trogopterus Xanthipes fly in day time Ecological Environment: Trogopterus Xanthipes perches in pit holes and rock crevices on hills with pine trees and cypress trees. To build a nest in a chasm or fissure in a rocky escarpment; Black and gray feces are common near caves. It prefers to be active in the morning or evening and can glide and climb trees. Its food is mainly cypress seeds (Semen Biotae) and fresh leaves. Trogopterus xanthipes is a forest animal, it lives in coniferous and broad-leaf forests at altitudes of about 1,200 meters above sea level. It nests on tall trees or in the crevices of steep rock walls. It is distributed in northern, west-north, southwest, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 a flying Trogopterus Xanthipes is crawing on a tree trunk Habits and characteristics: Trogopterus xanthipes lives in the long pine trees, and nests in the cave or crevices at the mountain rock cliffs, its nest looks like a bird's nest, covered with branches, weeds, etc. It sleeps in the nest during the day, goes out in the morning or at night, good at climbing and gliding. They feed on the leaves of pine trees and cypress, especially fond of cypress seeds. It breeds 1–2 times a year, 2~4 young offspring each time, Baby Trogopterus xanthipes is hairless at birth, but the leather diaphragm is extremely conspicuous.

(2).Pteromys volans L.

 Pteromys volans L. Pteromys volans L is commonly known as Xiǎo Fēi Shǔ (means small flying squirrel), or Siberian Flying Squirrel. Its shape is like a squirrel and small, 135~160 mm long. The tail length is about 2/3 of the body length. Their eyes are big with narrow rings of black hair. The anterior and posterior legs are covered with hairy membranes. Its tail is flat, densely covered with long and soft hairs. Its whole body is dark grayish-black, in summer its hairs on the back turn brownish gray, with gray ripples; Its color is yellow-gray or yellowish-gray in winter. Hairs on the abdomen are white. The two sides of the tail are orange-yellow. The color of the hair on the lower part of the membrane is the same as that on the back and ventral surface.

 a flowering small squirrel Pteromys volans L. Pteromys volans (small flying squirrel) is small, its body length is less than 200 mm. Its snout is blunt. Eyes are big, ears are normal, and limbs are stubby. Bare forefoot, with metacarpal and finger pads, the posterior paw is hairy, without metacarpal, with only 4-toe pads. The tail is flat and feathered. Female nipples are 4 pairs, i.e. 2 pairs on the chest and 2 pairs on the abdomen.

 two small flying squirrels Pteromys volans L. The hairs of Pteromys volans (small flying squirrel) switch in two colors in winter and summer, in summer its back hairs are brown-gray, its hair base is gray, its hair tip is brownish gray; Its hairs on the back are miscellaneous color and the base color of hairs is black, the upper part is gray, the tip has black needle hair, make the whole backside presents gray-black ripple. The flying membrane is consistent with the body's back color. The ventral surface is gray, the needle hair base is light gray, and the tip is white. There are black and brown circles around the eyes. Ears are covered with light brown short hairs. The back of the feet is brown, the metatarsus is covered with hazel (light tan) hairs. The back of the tail, the abdomen center has a dark brown slightly dyed gray stripe, orange-yellow on both sides. Its hairs in winter are lighter than hairs in summer, yellow or yellowish gray.

 The whole length of the skull of the Pteromys volans (small flying squirrel) is no more than 41 mm. Its snout is short, reaching only a quarter of the length of the skull. The cranial region is a convex circle, supraorbital process with 1 notch, supraorbital process along the orbit protruding backward. The zygomatic arch is relatively flat. The nasal bone is shorter, its ends are smaller than the width of the ends of the premaxilla. Auditory vesicles are larger and longer than the upper teeth. The foramen magnum is subrounded.

 a flying squirrel is flying to a tree Pteromys volans L. The smooth front surface of the front teeth of Pteromys volans (small flying squirrel) protrudes slightly. The first upper premolar is small, and the second upper premolar is big, with a slightly bigger crown than the subsequent molars. Lower crown molars have very distinct chewing surfaces, very similar to the molars of the squirrel family. Tooth = 22.

 Ecological Environment: Pteromys volans (small flying squirrel) lives in remote, thickly forested mountains. The small animal is distributed in the north and west-north area and other areas of China. It is also distributed in Estonia, Finland, and Latvia.

 Habits and characteristics: Pteromys volans perches in remote, thickly forested mountains, and build a nest in the hole in a tree. They forage at night and often glide between trees. Its foods are mainly pine seeds, acorns, young branches, berries, and so on.

 dried brownish Trogopterus Dung Characters of herbs: (1).Faeces Trogopterorum block: it is also known as sugar Faeces Trogopterorum, irregular blocks in different sizes. The surface is black-brown (dark brown), reddish brown, or taupe brown (grayish-brown), uneven, unstuous glossy, the adhered particles are oblong, and the surface often cracks and is fibrous. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is yellow-brown or tan (chocolate brown), uneven, there are some visible particles, and sometimes has yellowish-brown resinous substances. The herb has a smelly odor.

 (2).Faeces Trogopterorum rice: it is also known as scattered Faeces Trogopterorum, it is an oblong oval particle, 5~15 mm long, and 3~6 mm in diameter. The surface is black-brown (dark brown), reddish brown, or taupe brown (grayish-brown), which is smooth or slightly coarse and rough. There are visible pale yellow fiber remnants, and some are slightly glossy. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is loose, and easily broken, and the fracture surface is yellow-green, tawny (yellow-brown), uneven, and fibrous. The herb has a slight odor.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibit the platelet aggregation induced by ADP collagen in rabbits; ②.increase coronary flow, reduce coronary resistance; ③.anti-stress injury; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.antibacterial; ⑥.enhance the immune function, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activating blood circulation, stanch pain, remove blood stasis and hemostasis (stanch bleeding), remove stagnation and detoxification. It is indicated for the pain of heart abdomen and Qi blood, amenorrhea, postpartum blood stasis and pain, postpartum abdominal pain due to blood stasis, uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, leukorrhea with bloody discharge, infantile malnutritional stagnation, bites of snakes and scorpions and centipede. The raw herb is used to activate blood circulation and relieve pain, fried herb is used to stanch bleeding.

 Administration of Faeces Trogopterorum (Wǔ Línɡ Zhī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Faeces Trogopterorum (Wǔ Línɡ Zhī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick; ②.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle apply or apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Faeces Trogopterorum should be used cautiously during pregnancy, should not combine with Panax Ginseng Root.




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