Introduction of Tao Ren:Peach Seed or Semen Persicae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Peach Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Prunus persica(L.) Batsch., ②.Prunus davidiana(Carr.) Franch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Peach Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Persicae(Peach Seed).

Semen Persicae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Táo Rén.
 English Name: Peach Seed, or Peach Kernel.
 Latin Name: Semen Persicae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter, sweet, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Persicae is the dried ripe seed of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch or Prunus davidiana(Carr.) Franch., used (1).to promote blood flow and remove stasis for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, abdominal masses, and traumatic injuries, and (2).as an aperient for constipation in the aged and debilitated. The herb is commonly known as Semen Persicae, Peach Seed, Táo Rén.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Persicae(Peach Seed, Tao Ren) as the seed of the Rosaceae family plant species (1). Prunus persica(L.) Batsch., or (2). Prunus davidiana(Carr.) Franch. They are plants of the Amygdalus L. genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family) of the Rosales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Prunus persica(L.) Batsch.

 Prunus persicaL. Batsch.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The Prunus persica(L.) Batsch., is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) and Prunus genus, it is commonly known as "Amygdalus persica L.", "Peach", or "Táo", peach is a kind of tree, the tree grows up to 3~8 meters high; the canopy is broad and flat; the bark is dark reddish-brown, old and rough scale-like; branchlets are slender, glabrous, shiny, green, and turn into red at sunny places, with plenty of small lenticels; winter buds are conical, blunt at the top, pubescent outside, often 2-3-fascicled, middle leaves buds, flower buds on both sides.

 Prunus persicaL. Batsch.:fruiting tree Leaf-blade is oblong-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 7~15 cm long, 2~3.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is broadly cuneate, glabrous at the upper part, with few short below in veins hairy or glabrous, the margin is serrate or coarsely serrate, tooth glands are glandular or absent; petiole is stout, 1~2 cm long, often with 1 to several glands, sometimes glandular.

 Flowers are solitary, bloom before leaves, 2.5~3.5 cm in diameter; pedicels are very short or few sessile; the calyx is tube-shaped, pubescent, rarely glabrous, green with red spots; bracts are ovate to oblong-shaped, apically rounded, outer is pubescent; petals are oblong to elliptic to broadly obovate, pink, rarely white; stamens ca. 20~30, anthers are blushing; style several and stamens are as long or slightly shorter; ovary is pubescent.

 Prunus persicaL. Batsch.:fruiting tree The shape and size of the fruit are mutated, oval, broadly elliptical, or oblate, with a diameter of 5~7 centimeters. The length is equal to the width. The color changes from light greenish-white to orange-yellow, often in sunny, the mask is red-tinged, densely pubescent outside, thinly glabrous, with clear abdominal joints, short stems, and deep fruiting pods; Pulp is white, light greenish-white, yellow, orange or red, juicy, sweet, sweet and sour; Kernel is large, nuclear or sticky, oval or near-circular, flat on both sides, tip acuminate, surface with vertical and horizontal grooves and holes; kind of bitter, thin and sweet. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruit ripening period varies, usually from August to September.

 Prunus persicaL. Batsch.:fruiting tree Ecological Environment: The Prunus persica(L.) Batsch., grows on the slopes, valley bottoms, or wild woodland and shrubs at the area with elevations of 800~1,200 meters. Geographical distribution: This species was native to China, native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated widely in various provinces and regions. It is now planted all over the world. After the 2nd century B.C., the peach trees were cultivated by the Chinese people spread along the Silk Road from Gansu and Xinjiang to the west through Central Asia to Persia. From there, they were introduced to countries along the coasts of the Mediterranean, and they gradually passed in France, Germany, Spain, and Portugal. However, until the 9th century A.D., the number of peach trees planted in Europe gradually increased. After the 15th century, peach tree was introduced into England.

 Growth characteristics: The tree prunus persica prefers sunshine and a warm climate. It grows best in fertile, high dry sandy loam. Afraid of waterlogging, it does not grow well in low-lying alkaline soil. Young trees are weak in cold resistance and branches are easy to hurt from freezing. Resistant to pruning and the life is not very long.

 Peach Seed,Peach Kernel:herb photo Characters of herbs: The seeds are flat oval, with pointed apex, the middle part is slightly enlarged, rounded, and skewed base, the edge is thin. 1.2~1.8 cm long, 0.8~1.2 cm wide, and 2~4 mm thick. The surface is reddish-brown or yellowish-brown, with fine granular protrusions. There is a ridge-shaped hilum on one side and chalaza on the base, and many brown vascular bundle veins are scattered from this branch, forming longitudinal concave lines spread on the seed coat, the seed coat is thin. Cotyledons are fat and oily. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter.The herb of better grade is full, the kernel is white and complete.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.promote the uterine contraction of a primipara; ②.help postpartum uterine recovery and hemostasis; ③.strong anti-exudation effect on initial inflammation; ④.increase cerebral blood flow, reduce cerebrovascular resistance; ⑤.inhibit the respiration in the tissue and reduce its oxygen consumption.

 Medicinal efficacy: Promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis, break and remove blood stasis, moisten dryness and smooth intestines, moisten intestines and relax the bowels. It is indicated for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, abdominal mass, abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, fever and blood stagnation syndrome, wandering arthritis, malaria, hemostasis and swelling pain, blood dryness and constipation, intestinal dryness and constipation, injuries from falls.

 Administration of Semen Persicae (Táo Rén): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Persicae (Táo Rén)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Semen Persicae should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy.

(2).Prunus davidiana(Carr.)Franch.

 Prunus davidiana Carr.Franch.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The Prunus davidiana(Carr.)Franch., is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) and Prunus genus, it is commonly known as "Shān Táo (literally means Mountain Peach), "Amygdalus davidiana (Carr.) Vos ex Henry", "Persica davidiana, Prunus persica var. davidiana", "Chinese wild peach", or "Shan Tao", trees, the tree grows up to 10 meters high; canopy development, the bark is dark purple, smooth; branchlets are slender, upright, glabrous when young, brown when old. Leaf-blade is ovate-lanceolate, 5~13 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is cuneate, both surfaces are glabrous, the margin is serrulate; petiole is 1~2 cm long, glabrous, often glandular body.

 Prunus davidiana Carr.Franch.:fruiting tree Flowers are solitary, bloom before leaves sprout, 2~3 cm in diameter; pedicels are very short or sessile; the calyx is glabrous; calyx is tube-shaped; bracts are ovate to ovate-oblong, purple, apex is rounded; petals are obovate or subrounded, 10~15 mm long, 8~12 mm wide, pink, apex is obtuse, slightly concave; numerous stamens, several as long as or slightly shorter than petals; ovary is pilose, style is longer than stamens or nearly equal length.

 Prunus davidiana Carr.Franch.:ripe fruit on branch The fruit is nearly spherical, 2.5~3.5 cm in diameter, pale yellow, densely pubescent outside, short pedicels and deep fruit; fruit pulp is thin and dry, inedible, not dehiscent when mature; the kernel is spherical or subglobose, bilateral Not flattened, top is rounded, base is truncated, surface with vertical and horizontal grooves and holes, separated from the pulp. Its flowering period is from March to April, fruiting from July to August.

 Ecological Environment: The Prunus davidiana(Carr.)Franch., is a common tree species in temperate and frigid zones. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the northwest area of China, it is also cultivated in the north area, middle reaches of the Yellow River, the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and high-altitude regions in the southwest area of China. The vertical distribution is usually at an altitude of 500~1,450 meters above sea level and up to 2,100 meters in Gansu province. It is commonly found in sunny hillside shrubs. In recent years, it has been widely used in the conversion of farmland to forests, afforestation of barren hills, and landscaping.

 Prunus davidiana Carr.Franch.:flowering tree The Prunus davidiana(Carr.) Franch., is a tree species that is resistant to cold, salt and alkali, drought, and taboos. It is suitable for planting in well-lit, well-ventilated, and well-drained areas, where soils are neutral to slightly alkaline, a sandy loam is most suitable. Viscous fluids are prone to develop on sticky soils.

 The plant prefers light, cold-resistant, adaptable to the soil, resistant to drought, thin, fear of embarrassment. The Prunus davidiana(Carr.) Franch., is wild in various mountainous regions and semi-mountainous areas, adapting to the natural environment and generally capable of growing. Not strict on soil requirements.

 Growth characteristics: The tree Prunus davidiana prefers light, can also grow in the half shade, resistant to cold and drought. The soil requirements are not strict, it can be planted on barren mountains.

 Characters of herbs: The seed is ovoid, the base is skewed, small and thick. 0.9~1.5 cm long, 7 mm wide and 5 mm thick. The seed coat is reddish-brown or yellowish-brown, and the surface particles are thick and dense. The herb of better grade is full, the kernel is white and complete.
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