Introduction of Mao Dong Qing:Pubescent Holly Root or Radix llicis Pubescentis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Pubescent Holly Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Ilex pubescens Arn., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Pubescent Holly Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix llicis Pubescentis(Pubescent Holly Root).

Radix llicis Pubescentis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Máo Dōnɡ Qīnɡ.
 English Name: Pubescent Holly Root.
 Latin Name: Radix llicis Pubescentis.
 Property and flavor: cold, puckery, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix llicis Pubescentis is the dried root of Ilex pubescens Arn., used (1).to invigorate blood circulation and unblock the meridians and collaterals for the treatment of thromboangitis obliterans and angina pectoris, (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating inflammations such as acute tonsillitis, and (3).as antitussive and expectorant for treating acute bronchitis. The herb is commonly known as Radix llicis Pubescentis, Pubescent Holly Root, Root of Pubescent Holly, Máo Dōnɡ Qīnɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix llicis Pubescentis(Pubescent Holly Root) as the dried root of the species (1). Ilex pubescens Arn. It is a plant of the Ilex L. genus, the Aquifoliaceae family (holly family) of the Sapindales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Ilex pubescens Arn.

 Ilex pubescens Arn.:drawing of plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Máo Dōnɡ Qīnɡ. Evergreen shrubs or small trees, the tree grows up to 3~4 meters tall; Branchlets are slender, nearly prismatic, grayish brown, densely hirsute, with longitudinal ridges, without lenticels, with slightly raised, nearly crescent leaf markings; Terminal buds are usually stunted or absent. Living branches grow in 1~2 years, the leaf blade is papery or membranous, elliptic or long ovate, 2~6 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, apex is pointed or acuminate, the base is obtuse, the margin is thin and sharp finely serrate or nearly entire, adaxially green and light green on the back, when the olive green or dark olive, long bristles on both surfaces, lackluster, denser along main veins, on the back of the main vein in plain or slightly concave, a bulge on the back, lateral veins are 4 or 5 pairs, the foliage is not obvious, the back, near leaf margin near-net knot, stockwork two sides are not obvious; Petiole is 2.5~5 mm long, densely hirsute.

 Ilex pubescens Arn.:growing tree Inflorescences clustered in axils of 1~2-year-old branches, densely hirsute. Male inflorescence: single branches of clusters is with 1 or 3-flowered cymes, pedicels are 1.5~2 mm long, base is with 2 bracteoles, pedicels is 1~1.5 mm long if 3-flowered; Flowers 4 or 5 cardinal, pink; Calyx discoid, ca. 2 mm in diameter, villous, 5 or 6 deeply lobed, lobes are ovate-triangular, ciliate; Corolla is radial, 4~5 mm in diameter, 4~6 petals, ovate-oblong or obovate, ca. 2 mm long, apex is rounded, the base is slightly connate; Stamens are 3/4 the length of petals, anthers are oblong, ca. 0.8 mm; Pistil is obsolete, cushioned, apex is with a short beak. Female inflorescence: clustered, hirsute, single branches are with single flowers, sparsely 3-flowered, pedicels are 2~3 mm long, base is with bracteoles; Spend 6-8 cardinal; Calyx is discoid, ca. 2.5 mm in diameter, 6 or 7 deeply lobed, hirsute, pointed; Corolla is radial, 5~8 petals, oblong, ca. 2 mm long, apex is rounded; Stamens are about half the length of petals, aborted anthers are arrow-shaped; Ovary is ovoid, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 1.3 mm in diameter, glabrous, style is conspicuous, stigma is capitate, or thickly discoid. The fruit is globose, ca. 4 mm in diameter, red when mature, ribbed when dry, pedicel is ca. 4 mm long, densely hirsute; Persistent calyx is flattened, ca. 3 mm in diameter, lobes are ovate, hairy at the outer surface; Stigma is persistent thickly discoid or capitate, style is conspicuous. 6 cores, 5 or 7 are thin, outline is elliptic shape, length is ca. 3 mm, back width ca. 1 mm, both ends are pointed, abaxially single groove with longitudinal width and 3 stripes, both sides are smooth, inner fruit is leathery or subwoody. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from August to November.

 Ilex pubescens Arn.:fruits Ecological Environment: The plant often grows in the thickets and barren mountain grass on the slope at an altitude of 180~500 meters above sea level, in the evergreen broad-leaved forest or forest edge, and beside the stream and roadside. It can adapt to the red, yellow, and other mountain soil types widely distributed in southern China. At the same time, it was resistant to shade and could grow well in an evergreen broad-leaved forest with a canopy density of 0.8 or above. Except for Hubei and Sichuan, it widely spreads in the south of the Yangtze River area.

 Ilex pubescens Arn.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: The roots are cylindrical, with some branches, varying in length and 1~4 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-brown to chocolate-brown, and the root head has stem branches and stem residues; The cortex is slightly coarse and rough, with longitudinal fine wrinkles and transverse lenticels. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, not easy to break, the cortex of the fracture surface is thin, the wood part is developed, khaki to grayish-white, with dense radial texture and ring pattern. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter, puckery, and then sweet. Most of the herbs are pieces, ranging in size, and the thickness is 0.5~1 cm.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.influence on the cardiovascular system: increase of coronary flow is strong and lasting, the antihypertensive effect; ②.antimicrobial effect: bacteriostatic test showed that Staphylococcus aureus is extremely sensitive to the Radix llicis Pubescentis. Bacillus proteus, Bacterium flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also sensitive; ③.antitussive and expectorant effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat, detoxifying, activating blood circulation, unblock collaterals. It is indicated for anemopyretic cold, asthma cough of lung heat, sore throat, nippled moth (tonsillitis), swelling and aching of gum, chest pain and heartburn, apoplexia and hemiplegia, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease), erysipelas, burns (scald or empyrosis), ulcer, central retinitis, etc.

 Administration of Radix llicis Pubescentis (Máo Dōnɡ Qīnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix llicis Pubescentis (Máo Dōnɡ Qīnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 liang (about 30~90 grams). Externally:smear apply with water decoction, or immerse; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams. Externally:proper amount, smear apply with water decoction or immerse.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Llicis Pubescentis is slight toxic, should not be take in large dose for long period.

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