Introduction of Tu Bie Chong:Ground Beetle or Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Ground Beetle, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two insect species, ①.Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk., ②.Steleophaga plancyi(Bol.)., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two insect species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two insect species, the features of the herb Ground Beetle, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga (Ground Beetle).

Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Tǔ Biē Chónɡ, Tǔ Yuán, Zhè Chónɡ, Dì Biē or Dì Wū Guī.
 English Name: Ground Beetle.
 Latin Name: Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga.
 Property and flavor: cold, salty, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga is the dried female insect of Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk., or Steleophaga plancyi(Bol.), used (1).to break stasis for the treatment of amenorrhea and gynecological mass, and (2).to promote the healing of bone fracture. The herb is commonly known as Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga, Ground Beetle, Zhè Chónɡ or Tǔ Biē Chónɡ.

 Source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga(Ground Beetle) as the dried female insect of the species (1).Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk., (2).Steleophaga plancyi(Bol.). They are small animals of the Corydidae family (Corydiidae, Eupolyphaga family) of the Blattaria order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk.

 Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. Description: It is commonly known as Dì Biē (literally it means a soft-shelled turtle living in soil) or Dì Wū Guī (literally it means a turtle living in soil), or Tǔ Yuán, or Ground Turtle. The Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. is an adult female. Incomplete metamorphosis. The ground turtle is oval, 1.3~3 cm long, and 1.2~2.4 cm wide. The front end is narrower, the back end is wider, the back is purplish-brown, shiny, wingless. The chest and backplate are well-developed, covering the head; The abdominal dorsal plates are 9 segments, arranged in an imbricated pattern. Ventral is reddish-brown, head is small, 1 pair of filiform antennae, often decapitation, there are 3 pairs of feet on the chest, with fine hairs and spines. The belly has transverse links. Crisp and fragile. It smells fishy and slightly salty.

 Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. Life habits:  The ground turtle is an important medicinal insect. It lives in dark, moist, and humus-rich pine soil. It is afraid of the sun, hides during the day, and is active at night.

 Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. To complete a generation, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. needs to go through three stages: egg, nymph, and adult. It takes about 8 months for males to grow wings from nymphs, and 9 to 11 months for females to mature without wings. Males die in 5 to 7 days after mating. The female can lay eggs within one week after mating, and lay eggs once for life.

 Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. Eupolyphaga sinensis Walk. is an omnivorous insect, feeding characteristics like to eat fresh food, the most like to eat bran, rice bran, followed by corn flour, crushed grain, peanut cake, soybean meal, miscellaneous fish, meat and a variety of grass leaves, melon peel, chicken, cow dung and other coarse materials. It grows slow if feed only on grass feed, full-price feed material is composed of 72% wheat bran, corn flour 20%, soybean cake 5%, animal feed 3% (cooked feed). Feed when you want to use boiled water to boil, add another 30%~40% green vegetables or melon fruit. Individuals can grow into adults after 5~6 months with full feed.

 Distribution: the insect grows nearby the river and lake, it is distributed in south areas and other areas of China. Medicinal insects are produced mainly in the Zhujiang river area, Bozhou of Anhui, and other areas of China.

 Ground Beetle Di Bie:herb photo Herb Characteristics: Ground Beetle: The insect is in a flat oval shape, 1.3~3 cm long, and 1.2~2.4 cm wide. The front end is narrow, the back end is wide, the undersurface is purple-brown, shiny, and wingless. The front chest backboard is developed, covering the head; The dorsal plate has 9 segments, which are arranged in a tile shape. The abdomen is reddish-brown, the head is small, there are 1 pair of filiform antennae, which often fall off, and the chest has 3 pairs of feet, with fine hairs and thorns. There are transverse links in the abdomen. The texture of the herb is crisp and fragile. The herb has a fishy odor and tastes slightly salty.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.improve the tolerance of myocardium and brain to ischemia, and reduce the oxygen consumption of the heart and brain tissue; ②.reduce total cholesterol, delay the formation of atherosclerosis; ③.inhibit platelet aggregation; ④.anti-thrombotic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Break blood stagnation and remove blood stasis, the reunion of fractured tendons and bones. It is indicated for fall injury and swelling of blood stagnation or stasis, traumatic injury, injury of tendon and muscle, bone fracture, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, postpartum abdominal pain due to blood stasis, abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, rigid swollen tongue, sublingual swollen tongue (double tongue, inflammation of the sublingual soft tissue), etc.

 Administration of Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga (Tǔ Biē Chónɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga (Tǔ Biē Chónɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~10 grams; ②.water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams;infusing in wine and drink;prepare to ground herb powder,1~1.5 grams. Externally:proper amount, mouthwash with water decoction, prepare to finely ground herb powder and sprinkle apply, or mash fresh herb and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:should forbidden using the herb Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga during pregnancy.

(2).Steleophaga plancyi(Bol.).

 Steleophaga plancyi. Description: It is commonly known as Jì Dì Biē. Only male insects have wings, female insects have no wings. The male insect is 2.2 cm long. The female insect is 3.0~3.6 cm long. The upper and lower parts of the body are flat, the head is small, curved toward the ventral surface, the mouthparts are masticatory, the large jaw is hard, the antennae are filamentous, long and knobby, the compound eyes are developed, the antennae are shaped like kidneys around, the single eyes are 2, the front chest is expanded like a shield, the front is narrow and the back is broad on the head. The anterior chest of the male insect is wavy, with lacunae, 2 pairs of wings, leathery anterior wings, membranous posterior wings, folded into a fan when not in use, good at walking and flying, but not commonly use wings. The first abdominal section is very short, its web is not developed, eight, nine two abdominal sections of the backplate shortened, caudate 1 pair. The ninth web of the male insect has a pair of ventral spines, and the eighth and ninth webs of the female insect are concealed inside the seventh web. Genitalia is not protruding. Feet are in 3 pairs, equally developed, with fine hairs, prickly, the base is enlarged, cover and thoracoventral and abdominal parts. 5 tarsi, 2-clawed.

 The surface is dark brown. The anterior margin of the male adult is arched, the submarginal veins of the anterior wing are obviously branched, the radial veins, the middle veins, and the elbow-veins are longitudinal, and there are significant transverse veins between the veins. The buttocks are quite short.

 Ground Beetle Ji Di Bie:herb photo Life habits:  For omnivorous, like to eat hummus and starch and other substances. In the daytime, hidden motionless, late foraging. More living in the wild tree roots and fallen leaves under the rock, rice stores have chaff, and the bottom of the warehouse or the oil press square damp place. Perches in the kitchen, kitchen stove foot, dank place more.

 Herb Characteristics: The insect is 2.2~3.7 cm in length and 1.4~2.5 cm in width. The back is dark-brown, usually with yellowish-brown patches and black spots at the edges.
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