Introduction of Xi Hong Hua:Crocus,Saffron or Stigma Croci.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Crocus,Saffron, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Crocus sativus L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Crocus,Saffron, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Stigma Croci(Crocus,Saffron).

Stigma Croci:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xī Hónɡ Huā, or Fān Hónɡ Huā
 English Name: Crocus,Saffron.
 Latin Name: Stigma Croci.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Stigma Croci is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L., used in the same way as Flos Carthami. The herb is commonly known as Stigma Croci, Crocus, Saffron, Xī Hónɡ Huā, or Fān Hónɡ Huā.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Stigma Croci (Crocus, Saffron) as the dried stigma of the species (1). Crocus sativus L. It is a plant of the Crocus genus, the Iridaceae family (iris family) of the Liliflorae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Crocus sativus L.

 Crocus sativus L.:growing plant with bud Botanical description: Crocus sativus L is commonly known as Fān Hónɡ Huā, Xī Hónɡ Huā, Zàng Hónɡ Huā. The Crocus is a perennial herb. The bulb is oblate, about 3 cm in diameter, enveloped by a yellowish-brown membrane. Leaves are basal, 9~15 leaves, strip-shaped, celadon (sage green), 15~20 cm long, 2~3 mm wide, margin is reflexed; The base of the leaf tuft is wrapped by 4~5 membranous sheathed leaves.

 Crocus sativus L.:growing plants with flower buds The scapes (flower stalks) are very short, and do not stretch out the ground; 1~2 flowers, pale blue, reddish violet or white, fragrant, 2.5~3 cm in diameter; 6 tepals (perianth lobes), in 2 whorls, tepals on the inner and outer layers are obovate, the apex is obtuse, 4~5 cm long; 3 stamens, upright, 2.5 cm long, anthers are yellow, the apex is pointed, slightly curved; style is salmon color (orange-red), about 4 cm long, the upper part is 3 ramified, branches are curved and pendulous, stigma is slightly flat, apex is cuneate, shallow serrated, longer than stamens, ovary is narrowly fusiform.

 The capsularfruit is elliptic, about 3 cm long, about 1.5 cm wide, and has 3 obtuse ridges. Many seeds, spheric shape (globular). Its flowering period is from October to November.

 Crocus sativus L.:flowering plants Ecological Environment: The plant was native to Persia and the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor, and Iran, it is cultivated in the southwest of China. Crocuses are thought to be native to the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, and Iran. It was planted in Iran and Kashmir and is believed to have been introduced into China later, and it was recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica (1552~1578). The main cultivation centers of early-stage are Silesia and Asia minor. It was recorded in an English medical book of the 10th century. It ever disappeared in Western Europe until the Crusaders reintroduced it, and for a long period saffron worth more than its weight in gold and is still the most valuable spice in the world today. The herb is mainly distributed in Iran, France, Italy's Apennines mountains, and Sicily, Kashmir, and Xizang of China. Iran is the biggest Crocus producer in the world today.

 Crocus sativus L.:flower and stigma Growth characteristics: The plant Crocus sativus prefers a warm and moist climate, is afraid of heat, and is tolerant to cold. Seedlings can withstand a low temperature of about -10 °C (Celsius, or 14 degrees Fahrenheit); the flowering temperature is 14~20 °C (Celsius, or 57.2~68 degrees Fahrenheit), the soil temperature suitable for growth is 14~15 °C (Celsius, or 57.2~59 degrees Fahrenheit); The optimum temperature for the growth of the above-ground part is 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit). It is appropriate to choose a sunny field, loose and fertile, humus-rich sandy loam with good drainage for cultivation. Avoid continuous cropping, and avoid waterlogging.

 Crocus,Saffron:herb photo Characters of herbs: The complete stigma is linear, the apex is broad and big, tapering down to a tail shape, the edge of the apex is irregularly serrated, and the lower end is a residual yellow style. It is about 2.5 cm long, and 1.5 mm in diameter. Violet red or reddish dark brown, slightly glossy. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is floppy and soft, crisp, and easily broken when it is dried. When the stigma is put into water, it is swollen, there are orange-yellow color drops linearly and gradually spreads, and the water is dyed yellow, there is no deposit, and the stigma is trumpet-shaped with short cracks. The herb has a peculiar odor, it tastes slightly irritating and slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is long, violet red, moistening, and glossy, with few yellow styles, and tastes spicy and cool.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anticoagulant effect; ②.exciting uterine effect; ③.lower blood pressure and stimulate breathing; ④. treatment of experimental glomerulonephritis; ⑤.anti-tumor effect; ⑥.influence on learning and memory; ⑦.other effects:enhance the immune response function,lower cholesterol level(hypolipemic),choleretic effect, adaptogen activity, anti-stress, antifatigue effect, and so on.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis, cool blood and detoxify, disperse stagnation and removing stasis, resolving stagnation for tranquilization. It is indicated for amenorrhea and abdominal mass, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), irregular menstruation, postpartum stasis obstruction, postpartum persistent flow of lochia, abdominal mass pain, febrile virulent maculae, pestilent maculae, measles, melancholy and stuffiness and chest congestion, panic or palpitation due to fright, palpitation due to fright and delirium, fall injury, etc.

 Administration of Stigma Croci (Xī Hónɡ Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Stigma Croci (Xī Hónɡ Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 1~3 grams, water decoction, or infusing with boiling water and drink; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 grams, brewing with hot water, or infusing in wine and cook.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Stigma Croci should be used cautiously during pregnancy.




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