Introduction of Hong Hua:Safflower or Flos Carthami.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Safflower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Carthamus tinctorius L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Safflower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Carthami(Safflower).

Flos Carthami:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Hóng Huā.
 English Name: Safflower.
 Latin Name: Flos Carthami.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Carthami is the dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L.(family Compositae), used to activate blood flow, eliminate stasis and alleviate pain for the treatment of amenorrhea, chest pain, abdominal mass, and traumatic injuries. The herb is commonly known as Flos Carthami, Safflower, Hóng Huā, or Cǎo Hóng Huā.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Carthami(Safflower) as the dried flower of the plant species (1). Carthamus tinctorius L. It is a plant of the Carthamus genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Carthamus tinctorius L.

 Carthamus tinctorius L.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Hóng Huā, a member of the family Compositae or Asteraceae, which is a thistle-like plant with a strong central branch stem, a varying number of branches, and a tap-root system. Each branch usually has 1~5 flower heads and containing 15~20 seeds per head. The seed oil content ranges are from 30~45 percent. Flower color is usually yellow or orange, although some varieties have red or white flowers. Plant height in North Dakota varies is between 15~30 inches (38.1~76.2 cm) depending on environmental conditions.

 Carthamus tinctorius L.:flowering plant The taproot of safflower can penetrate to depths of 8 to 10 feet (2.4~3.05 meters) if subsoil temperature and moisture permit. As a result, safflower is more tolerant of drought than small grains.

 Carthamus tinctorius L.:flowering plant Carthamus tinctorius L., is an annual herb, 50~100 cm high. Stem erect, upper branches, white or pale white, smooth glabrous. Leaves are alternate; sessile; middle and lower stem leaves are lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 7~15 cm long, 2.5~6 cm wide, margin with a large serrated, serrate, serrate or entire, thin Pinnately fissured, addendum acupuncture, thorn 1~1.5 mm, upward leaves are gradually smaller, lanceolate, margin is serrated, tooth top acupuncture is longer, up to 3 mm; all leaves are hard, leathery, glabrous on both sides, glandular, shiny. The majority of the head inflorescences, arranged in the corymbs at the top of stems, surrounded by husk; bracts are oval or ovate-lanceolate, with apex acupuncture 2.5~3 cm long, with or without acupuncture edge; involucre shaped, diameter 2.5 cm; total bracts 4 layers, the outer is harp-shaped, the middle or lower part of the harrier, harvested above the leaf green leaves above the edge of acupuncture without acupuncture or grate, middle dural membranous, oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, ca. 2.2 cm, apex acuminate; bracts are glabrous, glandular-free; florets are red, reddish-orange, all bisexual, corolla long 2.8 cm, thin tube minister 2 cm, corolla lobes several eaves department base. Achenes are obovate, 5.5 mm long, 5 mm wide, milky white, with 4 edges, no crown. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Carthamus tinctorius L.:flowering plant The safflower plant grows up to 0.3~1.2 meters high. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower from August to October, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. The plant can grow in nutritionally poor soil and requires dry or moist soil. It cannot grow in the shade but can tolerate drought.

 Carthamus tinctorius L.:flowering plant Safflower has flowers that may be red, orange, yellow, or white. The dried flowers may be used to obtain carthamin, a red textile dye that was commercially important at one time but has since been replaced by synthetic aniline dyes, except in local areas of southwestern Asia. Safflower has been used as an adulterant of the condiment saffron.

 Oil obtained from the seed is the chief modern use of the plant. Safflower oil does not yellow with age, making it useful in preparing varnish and paint. Most of the oil, however, is consumed in the form of soft kinds of margarine, salad oil, and cooking oil. It is highly valued for dietary reasons because of its high proportion of polyunsaturated fats. The meal, or cake residue, is used as a protein supplement for livestock. Safflower chiefly grows in the west area of China, has been introduced as an oil crop into the United States, Australia, Israel, Turkey, and Canada.

 Flos Carthami:Safflower Safflower is cultivated in China as a blood tonic herb. It is grown in most areas of China and mainly grows and spread in China's northwest and northern provinces, also widely cultivated. Harvested when the flower turns from yellow into the red in summer, the flower is dried in the air or sun for use when raw.

 Traditionally, the crop was grown for its flowers, used for coloring and flavoring foods and making dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available, and in medicines.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Carthamus tinctorius prefers a warm and dry climate, resistant to cold, drought, salt alkali, and thin ridge. It is advisable to choose sandy loam with sunny, high geothermal dryness, deep soil layer, medium fertility, and good drainage. Avoid continuous cropping, avoid waterlogging in the flowering period. Better choose Leguminosae or grass family crops as the previous crop, can be intercropped with vegetables.

 Safflower:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is a tubular flower without an ovary, 1~2 cm long. The surface is reddish-yellow or red. The corolla tube is thin and long, the apex is 5-lobed, lobes are in narrow strip shape, 5~8 mm long. 5 stamens, anthers aggregated into tubular, yellow and white. The stigma is long cylindrical, slightly forked at the top. The texture of the herb is soft. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has red long corolla, bright, the texture is soft without thorns.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.exciting effect on the uterus; ②.slightly excite the heart, increase coronary blood flow and myocardial nutritional blood flow; ③.inhibit platelet aggregation; ④.enhance fibrinolytic enzyme activity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate blood circulation and stimulate the menstrual flow, disperse blood stasis and relieve pain. It is indicated for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), dystocia(difficult labour), stillbirth(stillborn foetus), apoplexy, dysfunction of the urinary bladder and cardiodynia, apoplexia and hemiplegia, lochiostasis, postpartum lochiostasis, abdominal mass, abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, pain of blood stasis, carbuncle and swelling, injury from falling down, arthralgia(pain of joints), pain of swelling and ulcer, macula.

 Administration of Flos Carthami(Hóng Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Carthami(Hóng Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; Internally:water decoction,1~2 qian(about 3~6 grams), or prepare to powder or infusing in wine, extract juice from fresh herb. Externally:prepare to ground herb powder and sprinkle apply; ②.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, better use small dosage for nourish blood and harmonize the blood, better use big dosage for activating blood circulation and dissipate stasis.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Flos Carthami should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy.

herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs activating blood and resolving stasis.

 Introduction: Herbs activating blood and resolving stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.
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