Introduction of Da Ji:Big Thistle Herb or Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Big Thistle Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cirsium japonicum DC., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Big Thistle Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.

Big Thistle Herb:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Dà Jì.
 English Name: Big Thistle Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet and bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici is the dried aerial part or root of Cirsium japonicum DC.(family Compositae), used as a hemostatic for the treatment of hematemesis and hematuria due to blood heat, also used for treating hepatitis and hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici, Dà Jì.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici as the dried aerial part or root of the species (1). Cirsium japonicum DC.(Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC.). It is a plant of the Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. Genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Cirsium japonicum DC.


 Cirsium japonicum DC.:drawing of whole plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC., or Dà Jì(literally it means Big Thistle), or Shān Luó Bo(literally it means Mountain Radish). Perennial herb, tuberous, spindle-shaped or radish, to 7 mm in diameter. Stems are erect, 30~80 cm, branched or unbranched, all stems are ribbed, with dense or sparse multicellular long nodes, subterminal whitish, densely tomentose, and multicellular nodes. Basal leaves are larger, panomorphic obovate, long obovate, elliptic or oblong, 8~20 cm long, 2.5~8 cm wide, pinnate deeply lobed, or several lobed, base gradually narrowed into a short or long pterygoid hilt, with spines and spines at the margin of the hilar. Lateral lobes 6 and 12 pairs, lateral lobes larger central, and lateral lobes are smaller downward, arrange sparsely or close all side lobes, lanceolate, half the oval, oval long oblique triangle, triangle or triangular lanceolate, wide and narrow changes greatly, or up to 3 cm wide, or narrow to 0.5 cm, margin with sparse sizes small serrated, or serrate and make the whole blade presents were more obvious the second split, addendum acupuncture can reach 6 mm long, short to 2 mm, teeth are small and dense or little needle acupuncture; Apex lobes are lanceolate or long triangular. Leaves tapering upward from the base, isomorphic and equilike with basal leaves, but sessile, base dilated semiclasping. All stems and leaves of the same color grow on both sides, green, with sparsely multicellular long or short ganglion hairs or few glabrous along veins on both sides.

 Cirsium japonicum DC.:flowering plant The inflorescence is erect, rarely pendulous, few stem ends but inflorescence is extremely short, not in a distinct inflorescence arrangement, few head solitary stem ends. Involucre campanulate, 3 cm in diameter. Involucral bracts ca. 6 layers, imbricate arranged, growing toward the inner layer, outer and middle layer ovate-triangular to long triangular, 0.8~1.3 cm long, 3~3.5 mm wide, apex long acuminate, with needles 1~2 mm long. Inner lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.5~2 cm long, 2~3 mm wide, apex acuminate in a soft needle-like shape. All bracts outer scabrous and mucous glands along the midrib. Achene is compressed, oblique wedge-shaped inverted lanceolate, 4 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, apically obliquely truncate. Florets are red or purple, 2.1 cm long, leaves 1.2 cm long, 5 lobed, tubules 9 mm long. Crested hair is light brown, multilayered, base united into rings, exfoliated as a whole; Crested bristles are long feathery, up to 2 cm long, inner layer becoming spindle-shaped or tapering toward the tip. Its flower period is from April to November.

 Cirsium japonicum DC.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows in forests, forest margins, thickets, grasslands, wastelands, fields, roadsides, or streams on hillsides at an elevation of 400~2,100 meters. It grows in the hillside, roadside, and other places, strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict, grows well in fertile, deep, well-drained soil. The plant distributes in the north area, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, the Hanjiang river area, the southwest area, and Taiwan of China. It also distributes in other areas of East Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cirsium japonicum prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to cold and drought. Strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict. Better to choose a deep soil layer, loose fertile sandy loam, or loam for cultivation.

 Big Thistle Herb:herb photo Characters of herbs: Big Thistle Herb: The stem of the herb is cylindrical, with a diameter of 0.5~1.5 cm and a diameter of 1.2 cm at the base. The surface is green-brown or chocolate-brown, with longitudinal edges and gray-white fluff. The texture of the herb is crisp, the fracture surface is yellow and white, the pith is white, often hollow. The leaves shrink rapidly and are frequently broken. After flattening, the intact leaves are oblanceolate or oval, deeply pinnate, with needles of unequal length at the edges, the upper surface is grayish-green or yellow-laurel, the color of the lower surface is light, there are white hairs on both sides. The flower head or capitulum is terminal, round, or oval, the involucre is withered-yellow, the bracts are lanceolate, 4~6 layers, the pappus is feather-like, yellow-white, or gray-white. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes mild. The herb of better grade is green and leafy.

 Big Thistle Root:herb photo The herb roots are long spindle-shaped, often twisted in clusters, 5~15 cm long, about 1 cm in diameter, the surface is dark brown, with longitudinal wrinkles. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is coarse and rough, the cortex is thin, chocolate-brown, there are tiny cracks, the wood part is whitish. The herb has a peculiar odor, it tastes slightly bitter and puckery. The herb of better grade has thick strips and short reeds.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antihypertensive effect; ②.antimicrobial effect: in vitro test of big thistle root decoction or whole grass distilled liquid, can inhibit the growth of toxic Mycobacterium hominis. Alcohol infusion has an inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium hominis. ③.effect on ascites cancer cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cools blood, hemostasis(stanch bleeding), disperses blood stasis, detoxifies, detumescence(reduce swelling), treating boils. It is indicated for hememesis(spitting blood), hemoptysis(cough up blood), epistaxis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria(blood in urine), hemafecia(pass blood in stool), bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), flooding, uterine bleeding, morbid leukorrhea, hepatitis, nephritis, hemorrhoidal hamorrhage, acute appendicitis, large carbuncle and swelling poison, traumatic injury, furuncle and malignant boil, scrofula(lymphoid tuberculosis), eczema, etc.

 Administration of Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici(Dà Jì): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici(Dà Jì)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams), extract juice or prepare to finely ground herb powder. Externally:mashed and apply, or extract juice and smear apply; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams, fresh herb 30~60 grams. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick. Better carbonizing by stir-frying for stanch bleeding application.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici should not be prepared with ironware.

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Da Ji:Big Thistle Herb or Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.

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