Introduction of Da Ji:Big Thistle Herb or Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Big Thistle Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Big Thistle Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.

dried pale greenish herb segments and pieces of Big Thistle Herb Pin Yin Name: Dà Jì.
 English Name: Big Thistle Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet and bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici is the dried aerial part or root of Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC., used as a hemostatic for the treatment of hematemesis and hematuria due to blood heat, also used for treating hepatitis and hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici, Dà Jì.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici as the dried aerial part or root of the species (1). Cirsium japonicum DC.(Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC.). It is a plant of the Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. Genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC.

 a colorful drawing of Cirsium japonicum DC.,whole plant,root,leaves,flowers and seed Botanical description: Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC is commonly known as Cirsium japonicum DC., or Dà Jì (means Big Thistle), or Shān Luó Bo (means Mountain Radish). A perennial herb, root tuber (tuberous root) is fusiform (spindle-shaped) or radish-shaped, 7 mm in diameter. Stems are upright, 30~80 cm high, branched or unbranched, all stems are ribbed, with dense or sparse multicellular long nodes, subterminal part is whitish, densely tomentose. Basal leaves are petiolate, leaf blades are oblanceolate, or obovate-elliptic, 8~20 cm long, 2.5~8 cm wide, pinnately parted, or almost deeply divided, the base is gradually narrowed to a short or long pterygoid hilt, with spines at the margin of the hilt. Lateral lobes are in 6~12 pairs, middle lateral lobes are larger, and lateral lobes upward or downward are smaller, the edge is dentate, the tip of teeth has spines; leaves from the base upward are gradually smaller, same shape as basal leaves and same divided, but sessile, base is enlarged and half stem-clasping; all cauline leaves are the same color on both surfaces, green, sparse hairs grow along veins on both surfaces.

 flowering plants of Cirsium japonicum DC. grow in field Capitulum (flower head) is upright, single or several grow on the tip of the stem and accumulate to a conical-shape; general involucre is campanulate (bell-shaped), 3 cm in diameter; phyllaries are in 6 layers, imbricate, turn longer toward the inner layer, phyllary in the out later and middle layer are ovate-triangular to long triangular, apex has short spines, phyllary in the inner layer are lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, the apex is acuminate and soft needle-like; flowers are hermaphroditic, all are tubular flower (tubiform floret), the corolla is purple or prunus (violet-red), 1.5~2 cm long, 5-lobed, lobes are shorter than those grow on lower and swollen part; 5 stamens, apex of anther has a tag (attached film), the base has a tail.

 Achenes are oblong oval, slightly oblate, about 4 mm long; pappus is pinnate, dark gray, and slightly shorter than corolla. Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from June to August.

 flowering plants of Cirsium japonicum DC. with pinkish flowers grow in field Ecological Environment: The plant grows in forests, forest edges, thickets, grasslands, wastelands, fields, roadsides, or streams on hillsides, in areas at altitudes of 400~2,100 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the northern area, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, the Hanjiang River area, the southwest area, and Taiwan of China. It is also distributed in other areas of East Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cirsium japonicum prefers a warm and moist climate, resistant to cold and drought. With strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict. It is appropriate to choose a field with deep soil layers, loose and fertile sandy loam, or loam for cultivation.

 dried pale greenish herb segments of Big Thistle Herb Characters of herbs: Big Thistle Herb: The stem of the herb is cylindrical, 0.5–1.5 cm in diameter, and the diameter at the base is 1.2 cm. The surface is olive-brown (greenish brown) or tan (chocolate brown), has longitudinal ridges, and is covered with ash-gray (grayish white) fluff. The texture of the herb is loose and crisp, the fracture surface is yellowish white, and the pith is white, often hollow. The leaves are shriveled and mostly broken. After flattening, the intact leaves are oblanceolate or obovate-elliptic, pinnately parted, with needles of unequal length at the edges, the upper surface is celadon (sage green) or yellowish-brown, the color of the lower surface is light, there are white hairs on both surfaces. The capitulum (flower head) is apical, spheric (globular), or elliptic, the involucre is withered-yellow, the bracts are lanceolate, and in 4–6 layers, the pappus is pinnate (feather-like), yellowish white, or grayish white. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes mild. The herb of a better grade is green and foliose.

 dried brownish herb root segments of Big Thistle Root The herb roots are long fusiform (spindle-shaped), often tufty and twisted, 5–15 cm long, and about 1 cm in diameter, the surface is darkish brown, with longitudinal wrinkles. The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easy to break, the fracture surface is coarse and rough, the cortex is thin, and tan (chocolate brown), there are rimula (tiny cracks), and the xylem (wood part) is off-white (whitish). The herb has a peculiar odor, and it tastes slightly bitter and puckery. The herb of a better grade has thick strips and short reeds.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antihypertensive effect; ②.antimicrobial effect: in vitro test of big thistle root decoction or whole grass distilled liquid, can inhibit the growth of toxic Mycobacterium hominis. Alcohol infusion has an inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium hominis. ③.effect on ascites cancer cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cools blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), disperses blood stasis, detoxifies, detumescence (reduce swelling), treating boils. It is indicated for hememesis (spitting blood), hemoptysis (cough up blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), flooding, uterine bleeding, morbid leukorrhea, hepatitis, nephritis, hemorrhoidal hamorrhage, acute appendicitis, large carbuncle and swelling poison, traumatic injury, furuncle and malignant boil, scrofula (lymphoid tuberculosis), eczema, etc.

 Administration of Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici (Dà Jì): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici (Dà Jì)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), fresh herb 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams), extract juice or prepare to finely ground herb powder. Externally:mashed and apply, or extract juice and smear apply; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams, fresh herb 30~60 grams. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick. Better carbonizing by stir-frying for stanch bleeding application.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici should not be prepared with ironware.




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