Introduction of Huai Hua:Pagodatree Flower or Flos Sophorae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Pagodatree Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Sophora japonica L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Pagodatree Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Sophorae(Pagodatree Flower).

Flos Sophorae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Huái Huā.
 English Name: Pagodatree Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Sophorae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Sophorae is the dried flower of Sophora japonica L., used (1).to cool blood and stop bleeding in various cases of hemorrhages due to blood heat, particularly hemorrhoidal bleeding, and (2).to clear liver fire for up-flaming of liver fire with headache and also for hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Flos Sophorae, Pagodatree Flower, Huái Huā.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Sophorae (Pagodatree Flower) as the dried flower of the species (1). Sophora japonica L. It is a plant of the Sophora genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Sophora japonica L.


 Sophora japonica L.:flowering tree Botanical description: Sophora japonica L., is commonly known as Huái, Bái Huái. Deciduous trees, the tree grows up to 8~20 meters high, or even up to 25 meters high; The bark is taupe brown (grayish brown), with irregular longitudinal cracks, inner bark (endothelium) is canary-yellow (bright yellow), and it has a stink. Young shoots are dark olive-brown, glabrate, or have short and fine hairs, lenticels are conspicuous. Odd-pinnate compound leaves, alternate, 15–25 cm long; the rhachis has hairs, the base is enlarged; 7–15 lobules, petioles are about 2 mm long, densely covered with white pubescence; Stipules (peraphyllum) are sickle-shaped, sometimes ovate, sometimes linear or subulate, caducous; 4–7 pairs of leaflets, opposite or subalternate, papery, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 2.5~7.5 cm long, 1.5~3 cm wide, apex is acuminate, protrudent pointed, base is broadly cuneate or orbicular, slightly oblique, entire, the upper surface is green, slightly bright, initially sparsely pubescent, turning glabrous later, the back surface is covered with reptant white pubescence; 2 petiolules, subulate.

 Sophora japonica L.:flowering tree Panicles are apical, often pyramidal, 15–30 cm long; Pedicels are shorter than calyx; 2 bracteoles; calyx is shallow campanulate (bell-shaped), 5-lobed, about 4 mm long, nearly equal length, rounded or obtuse triangular, grayish pubescent, calyx tube is glabrate; corolla is papilionaceous, cream white (milky white) or faint yellow (pale yellow), vexilla is broadly cordate, long and wide, about 11 mm long, with a short claw, veins are slightly purplish, the apex is emarginate, the base is shallow cordate, alae (winged stem) and tropis (keel pelals) are rectangle or ovoid oblong; 10 stamens, separated, unequal length, persistent; ovary is tube-shape, has thin and long pilose, style is curved.

 Pods are succulent, beaded, 2.5~5 cm long or slightly longer, about 10 mm in diameter, yellowish green, glabrous, not cracked; the clearance of seeds is very small, seeds are closely arranged, the pericarp is succulent, not cracked when mature, 1~6 seeds. Seeds are reniform, yellowish-green, and turn dark brown when they are dried. Its flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Sophora japonica L.:fresh flowers Ecological Environment: The tree grows on hillsides, plains, or in gardens. It is cultivated on roadsides, near the house. It is distributed in most areas of China, mainly in the northern area, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The tree Sophora japonica has a strong adaptability to climate and can be cultivated in the field with deep soil layers, especially in moist and fertile deep sandy loam with good drainage. But it can also grow normally in calcareous and mildly saline-alkali soil.

 Pagodatree Flower:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb pagodatree flower is mostly shriveled and curled, and has many scattered petals. The intact calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), yellowish-green, apex is 5-lobed; 5 petals, yellow or yellowish-white, 1 petal is large, orbicular, apex is emarginated (slightly concave), and the other 4 petals are oblong; 10 stamens, bases of 9 stamens connate, filaments are thin and long; the pistil is cylindrical, curved. The herb of better grade is large, compact, yellowish green, and has sessile leaves.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the clotting time; ②.component rutin and quercetin can reduce capillary permeability, enhance the resistance of capillary, but also can expand coronary artery, enhance myocardial contractive power, slow down the heart rate, reduce blood pressure, prevent arteriosclerosis; ③.inhibition effect on the dermatophytes such as Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton schoenleini, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood and hemostasis (stanch bleeding), clear heat, removing heat from the liver and purging the pathogenic fire, removing heat from the liver and improving eyesight. It is indicated for hemafecia (pass blood in stool), hemorrhoidal hamorrhage and hemafecia (pass blood in stool), hemorrhoids blood, hematuria (blood in urine), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), blood dysentery, uterine bleeding, hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), dysentery with bloody stool, liver heat and red eyes, wind-heat and red eyes, red eyes and swelling pain, liver heat and headache, ulcer and sore poison, headache and dizziness. It is also indicated for the prevention of apoplexia.

 Administration of Flos Sophorae (Huái Huā): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Sophorae (Huái Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,2~5 qian (about 6~15 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: fumigation washes with water decoction, or prepare to ground herb powder and sprinkle; ③.Internally: water decoction, 5~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, fumigation wash with water decoction, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and sprinkle apply.

 
Flos Sophorae Immaturus(Pagodatree Flower-bud).

 Flos Sophorae Immaturus:herb photo Brief Introduction: The herb Flos Sophorae Immaturus is used in the same way as the flower, with stronger action. The herb is commonly known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus, Pagodatree Flower-bud, Huái Mǐ.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Sophorae Immaturus(Pagodatree Flower-bud) as the dried flower buds of the species (1).Sophora japonica L. It is a plant of the Sophora genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced in the entry "Flos Sophorae (Pagodatree Flower)".

 Characters of herbs: The herb Pagodatree Flower-bud is egg-shaped or oval, 2~6 mm long, and 2~3 mm in diameter. There are several longitudinal lines in the lower part of the calyx. The upper part of the calyx is yellow, and the white petals are not flowered. The pedicel is tiny. The herb is light, easily broken, has a slight odor, and tastes bitter.
 
Fructus Sophorae(Pogodatree Pod).

 Fructus Sophorae:herb photo Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Sophorae is the dried ripe fruit of Sophora japonica L., used as pagodatree flower, chiefly for the treatment of hemorrhoidal bleeding. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Sophorae, Pogodatree Pod, Huái Jiǎo.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Sophorae(Pogodatree Pod) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1).Sophora japonica L. It is a plant of the Sophora genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced in the entry "Flos Sophorae (Pagodatree Flower)".

 Characters of herbs: The pods are cylindrical, sometimes curved, and constricted among seeds to form beads, 1~6 cm long, and 0.6~1 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-green or yellowish-brown, wrinkled, coarse and rough, and slightly shiny. There is a yellow band on one side of the back suture, a protruding stump at the top, and a stalk residue at the base. The texture of the herb is soft and easy to break at the constriction, the pulp is yellow-green, sticky, translucent, and corneous. 1~6 seeds, kidney-shaped or oblong, 8~10 mm long, and 5~8 mm wide, brownish-black, the surface is smooth and shiny, with a concave ash gray (grayish white) round hilum on one side, it is hard and has 2 cotyledons, yellowish green. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes slightly bitter. The herb has a fishy smell of beans when chewed. The herb of a better grade is full, yellowish-green, and the texture of the herb is soft and moist.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Sophorae should be avoid using during pregnancy.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Huai Hua:Pagodatree Flower or Flos Sophorae.

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