Introduction of Ou Jie:Lotus Rhizome Node or Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Lotus Rhizome Node, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Lotus Rhizome Node, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis(Lotus Rhizome Node).

Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: ǒu Jié.
 English Name: Lotus Rhizome Node.
 Latin Name: Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet, puckery.

 Brief introduction: The herb Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis is the dried node of the rhizome of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., used to cool blood, stopping bleeding, and remove blood stasis for the treatment of nasal bleeding, hemoptysis, hematuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding. The herb is commonly known as Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis, Lotus Rhizome Node, ǒu Jié.

 Lotus Root Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis (Lotus Rhizome Node) as the dried node of the rhizome of the Nymphaeaceae family (water lily family) plant species (1). Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

 Botanical description: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., is a plant of the Nymphaeaceae family (water lily family) and Nelumbo genus, it is commonly known as Nelumbo nucifera, or Lián, a perennial aquatic herb. Rhizomes grow cross, hypertrophic, internode is enlarged, many vertical venthole cavities inside, fibrous adventitious root grow outside. Leaves grow on nodes, and grow out on the water surface; the petiole inserted in the center of the leaf blade back, is thick, cylindrical, and thorniness; the leaf blade is circular, 25~90 cm in diameter, entire-edge or slightly wavy, the upper surface is pinkish green, leaf veins radiate from the center on the under surface, with 1~2 secondary forked branches. Solitary flowers grow on the top end of the peduncle, peduncle and petiole are equal length or slightly longer, with scattered small thornlets; flower diameter is 10~20 cm, fragrance, red, pink, or white; petals are elliptic or obovate, 5~10 cm long, 3~5 cm wide; many stamens, anthers are stripe-shape, the filament is slender, inserted below receptacle; many carpels, hide in the enlarged receptacle, the ovary is elliptic, style is very short. After flowering the seedpod of the lotus grows out, obconical, 5~10 cm in diameter, with 20~30 small holes, 1 fruit in each hole; the nut is elliptic or oval, 1.5~2.5 cm long, the pericarp is corious, firm and hard, turns black-brown when mature. Seeds are oval, or elliptic, 1.2~1.7 cm long, and spermoderm (seed coat) is red or white. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn:lotus flower Ecological Environment: The plant grows in marshy land, ponds, lake marsh, or paddy field, in the wild or cultivated. This species is mainly distributed in areas of China from south to north where there is water and is commonly cultivated in water gardens. This species is also distributed in Southeast Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers warm and humid climates, lotus seed starts to seedling when the soil temperature is over 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), the stem and leaves grow when the temperature is over 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), the temperatures of 20~30 °C (Celsius, or 68~86 degrees Fahrenheit) is suitable for its growth, flowering, and fruiting, 25~35 °C (Celsius, or 77~95 degrees Fahrenheit) is most suitable for the growth of lotus root, the plant stops growing when temperature lower than 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit). The requirement in water level:5~10 cm is optimum for the early stage of growth, 20~30 cm is optimum for the peak of the growing season, and the highest water level should not cover the leaves.

 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.:flowering lotus The rhizomes of the lotus are planted in the mud at the bottom of the pond or river, while the lotus leaves rise to the surface. A few centimeters of flower stems on the surface of the water grow flowers. The lotus generally grows to 150 cm in height and extends horizontally to 3 meters. The lotus leaf is up to 60 cm in diameter. The eye-catching lotus has a diameter of up to 20 cm. There are many cultivars for lotus, ranging from snow-white to yellow or pink.

 Lotus can be bred with seeds or rhizomes. In particular, lotus seeds can survive for thousands of years. Some scientists have cultivated some thousand-year-old lotus seeds, and the lotus that has been produced is still alive. The two ancient lotus seeds found in the Yangshao cultural site have a history of more than 3,000 years, but they are too precious to be cultivated.

 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn:flowering lotus Building a pond with lotus plants and building bridges and bridges along the water constitutes a scenic view of the lotus. It is a traditional method of Chinese gardens. Scenic spots are widely used throughout the country. It also applies to garden water, purified water, or potted plants. The lotus root and lotus seeds are rich in nutrients. Raw and cooked foods are suitable. Lotus root stems can be processed into wolfberry powder, candied fruit, and so on. Lotus seeds have a soothing effect, often used as a soup or candied fruit, to nourish people. Lotus petals and young leaves can be eaten. All parts of lotus can be used as herbs.

 Lotus Rhizome Node:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is cylindrical or shortly cylindrical, slightly enlarged in the middle, 2~4 cm long, and about 2 cm in diameter. The surface is sallow (grayish yellow) or taupe brown (grayish-brown), the nodes are enlarged, there are many residual fibrous roots or round fibrous root marks, occasionally dark reddish-brown scales residues are visible, the surfaces of the residual parts at both ends of the nodes have longitudinal striations. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard, and it is not easy to break. There are 7~9 big round holes in the center of the cross-section, in different sizes. The herb has a slight odor or is odorless, it tastes sweet or slightly sweet, and puckery.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hemostasis: shorten the time of blood clotting.

 Medicinal efficacy: Hemostasis (stanch bleeding) and remove blood stasis. It is indicated for hememesis (spitting blood), hemoptysis, hemoptysis (coughing blood), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), blood dysentery, uterine bleeding, etc.

 Administration of Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis (ǒu Jié): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Nodus Nelumbinis rhizomatis (ǒu Jié)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams), extract juice or prepare to powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams; extract juice with fresh herb, 60 grams fresh herb is extracted juice to take with water, or prepare to powder.

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