Introduction of Wa Song:Roof Stonecrop or Herba Orostachyos.
✵The article gives records of the herb Roof Stonecrop, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Orostachys fimbriatus (Turcz.) Berger., and other three usable plant species, ②.Orostachys erubescens (Maxim.) Ohwi., ③.Orostachys malacophyllus (Pall.) Fisch., ④.Orostachys spinosus (L.) C.A.Mey., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Roof Stonecrop, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Herba Orostachyos(Roof Stonecrop).
Pin Yin Name: Wǎ Sōnɡ.
English Name: Roof Stonecrop.
Latin Name: Herba Orostachyos.
Property and flavor: sour and bitter, cool, toxic.
Brief introduction: The herb Herba Orostachyos is the dried aerial part of Orostachys fimbriatus (Turcz.) Berger., used as a hemostatic mainly for treating hematochezia and hematemesis, and externally for treating skin ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Herba Orostachyos, Roof Stonecrop, Wǎ Sōnɡ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Orostachyos(Roof Stonecrop) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Orostachys fimbriatus (Turcz.) Berger., (2). Orstachys erubescens(Maxim.) Ohwi., (3). Orostachys malacophyllus (Pall.) Fisch., (4). Orostachys spinosus (L.) C.A.Mey. They are plants of the Orostachys Fisch. Genus, the Crassulaceae family (stonecrop family) of the Rosales order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Orostachys fimbriatus (Turcz.) Berger.
Botanical description: Orostachys fimbriatus (Turcz.) Berger is also known as Cotyledon fimbriata Turcz., Sedum fimbriatum (Turcz.) Franch.var.genuinum Frod., is commonly known as Wǎ Sōnɡ. A biennial or perennial herb, the plant grows up to 10~40 cm tall. The plant is pink-greenish, glabrous, with dense prunus (violet-red) spots. Roots are many-branched, fibrous root shaped. Stem is upright, unbranched. Basal leaves are rosette, succulent, spatulate-linear to oblanceolate, 2~4 cm long, 4~5 mm wide, green purplish or pruinose (with white powder), the margin is penicillate (fringelike or fimbriate), apex has semicircular cartilaginous appendage, the center has 1 acicular spine; cauline leaves are alternate, sessile, linear to lanceolate, 2~3 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, the apex is long and acuminate, entire.
Racemes, compact, branches on the lower part compose spires; Flowers are small, hermaphroditic, bracts are linear acuminate, leaf-like; 5 sepals, oblong, 1~3 mm long; 5 petals, faint red, lanceolate elliptic, 5~6 mm long, base slightly connate; 10 stamens, in 2 whorls, equal length as petals or slightly shorter, anthers are purple; 5 carpels, separate, 1 scale inserted at the base of each carpel, nearly quadrate (square).
Follicles, oblong, about 5 mm long, rostrum (beak) is slender, about 1 mm long. Seeds are many, minute, and oval (egg-shaped). Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from September to November.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in stones and rocks on hillsides or mountain slopes, or on roof tiles. It is mainly distributed in the northern, and eastern areas, and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in China.
Characters of herbs: The stem of the herb is thin cylindrical, yellow-brown or dark tan (dark chocolate brown), 12~20 cm long, or 5~27 cm long, and 2~6 mm in diameter, scars after most leaves fall off, interconnected, and forms prismatic patterns. The leaves are celadon (sage green) or yellowish-brown, with many leaves falling off, shriveled and curly, 12~15 mm long, and 3 mm wide. Flowerets (floscules) grow between cauline leaves on the upper part of the stem, which are brunneus (reddish-brown), and small pedicels vary in length. The texture of the herb is light and crisp, fragile. The herb has a slight odor and a sour taste.
Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), remove dampness through diuresis, detumescence (reduce swelling), deliquescent and collect sores. It is indicated for the treatment of hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), hepatitis, malaria, pyretic stranguria (heat stranguria), irregular menstruation, hemorrhoids, malignant boils, carbuncle, eczema, ulcers and malignant boils, scalds, burns of soup and fire, pneumonia, cervical erosion, chyluria, etc.
Administration of Herba Orostachyos (Wǎ Sōnɡ):
Administration Guide of Herba Orostachyos (Wǎ Sōnɡ)
①.Internally:3~9 grams.Externally:proper amount,prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick;②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill. Externally:mashed and apply stick, fumigation wash with water decoction, or charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~15 grams, extract juice, or prepare to pill. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick;or fumigation wash with water decoction, or prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.
(2).Orostachys erubescens (Maxim.) Ohwi.
Botanical description: Orostachys erubescens (Maxim.) Ohwi is also known as Umbilicus erubescens Maxim., or Sedum erubescens (Maxim.) Ohwi., commonly known as Wǎn Hóng Wǎ Sōnɡ. A biennial herb. In the first year, the plant only has a rosette leaf, succulent, narrowly spatulate or lanceolate, 1.5~3 cm long, 4~7 mm wide, the apex is long acuminate, slightly curved, has cartilaginous spines, entire or corrugated; In the second year, scapes (flower stalks) grow from the rosette leaves, 10~40 cm high, upright, the whole plant is covered with white powder, densely covered with red brown glandular points; Leaves on scapes are linear to linear-lanceolate, 2~6 cm long, 3~7 mm wide, the tip is long acuminate, has red spots when it is dried.
Racemes are conical, flowers are dense, leafy bracts grow between inflorescences, ovate-lanceolate or sickle-shaped; 5 sepals (calyx lobes), about 4 mm long; 5 petals, white or faint red, linear-lanceolate, 4~6 mm long, 1.8 mm wide; 10 stamens, in 2 whorls, slightly shorter than petals, anthers are dark purple; 5 scales, nearly quadrate, the tip is emarginate (slightly concave); 5 carpels, upright, separate, base is suddenly narrowing, style is thin, 2 mm long.
Follicles, about 5 mm long. Seeds are about 1 mm long, and brown. Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from September to November.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows on rocks of low hills or beside gullies. It is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.
(3).Orostachys malacophyllus (Pall.) Fisch.
Botanical description: Orostachys malacophyllus (Pall.) Fisch is also known as Cotyledon malac ophylla Pall., or Sedum malacophyllum (Pall.) Stend., commonly known as Dùn Yè Wǎ Sōnɡ. A biennial herb. Plant forms rosette in the 1st year, grows out dense rosette leaves, oblong-lanceolate, obovate or elliptic, 2~4 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, the apex is obtuse or short and acuminate, not spiny, entire, densely covered with dark red spots. Scapes (flower stalks) grow out from the rosette in the 2nd year, unbranched, 10~30 cm tall, leaves on scape are alternate, bigger than the rosette, up to 7 cm long.
The inflorescence is racemose, sometimes spicate (spiciform), flowers are dense; Bracts are spatulate-ovate; 5 sepals, oblong, 3~4 mm long, sharp-pointed; 5 petals, white or greenish, ovate-oblong, 4~6 mm long; 10 stamens, in 2 whorls, longer than petals; 5 scales, linear rectangle, about 0.3 mm long, the apex is emarginate (slightly concave); 5 carpels, oval (egg-shaped), separate, style is about 1 mm long.
Follicles are ellipsoidal. Seeds are many, minute (fine and tiny), ovate-oblong, with vertical striations. Its flowering period is in July, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in cracks in the rocks, in areas at altitudes of 1,200~1,800 meters above sea level. It is distributed in the northern areas and other areas of China.
(4).Orostachys spinosus (L.) C.A.Mey.
Botanical description: Orostachys spinosus (L.) C.A.Mey is also known as Cotyledon spinosa L., or Sedum spinosum (L.) Thunb., is commonly known as Huáng Huā Wǎ Sōnɡ, or Cì Yè Wǎ Sōnɡ. A biennial herb. In the first year, the plant forms rosette, dense rosette leaves, leaf blades are oblong, with a semicircular white cartilaginous appendage at the apex, and one 2~4 mm long spine in the center; In the second year, scapes (flower stalks) grow from the rosette, grows up to 10~30 cm high; Leaves on the scape are alternate, sessile, broadly linear to oblanceolate, 1~3 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, the apex is acuminate, spinose and has cartilaginous spines.
Inflorescences are spicate (spiciform) or racemose, apical, 5~20 cm long; pedicels are about 1 mm long, or sessile; Bracts are lanceolate to oblong, up to 4 mm long, the apex is acuminate, has spiny point; 5 sepals, ovate-oblong, 2~3 mm long, apex has spiny point, reddish spotted; 5 flower petals, yellowish green, ovate-lanceolate, 5~7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; 10 stamens, slightly longer than flower petals; 5 scales, subquadrate (nearly square), about 0.7 mm long, the apex is emarginate (slightly concave); 5 carpels, lanceolate.
Follicles, elliptic-lanceolate, 5~6 mm long, margin length is 1.5 mm. Seeds are oblong-ovate. Its flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is in September.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the cracks of stone on dry hillsides or on the stone cliff at riverbank, and sandy grassland. It is distributed in northwest areas of China, mainly in Gansu, Xinjiang, and other areas.
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1.Introduction of Wa Song:Roof Stonecrop or Herba Orostachyos.