Introduction of Wa Song:Roof Stonecrop or Herba Orostachyos.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Roof Stonecrop, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Orostachys fimbriatus(Turcz.) Berg., and other three usable plant species, ②.Orstachys erubescens(Maxim.) Ohwi., ③.Orost achys malacophyllus(Pall.) Fisch., ④.Orostachyl spinosus(L.) C.A.Mey., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Roof Stonecrop, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Orostachyos(Roof Stonecrop).

Herba Orostachyos:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Wǎ Sōnɡ.
 English Name: Roof Stonecrop.
 Latin Name: Herba Orostachyos.
 Property and flavor: sour and bitter, cool, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Orostachyos is the dried aerial part of Orostachys fimbriatus(Turcz.)Berg.(family Crassalaceae), used as a hemostatic mainly for treating hematochezia and hematemesis, and externally for treating skin ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Herba Orostachyos, Roof Stonecrop, Wǎ Sōnɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Orostachyos(Roof Stonecrop) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Orostachys fimbriatus(Turcz.) Berg., (2). Orstachys erubescens(Maxim.) Ohwi., (3). Orost achys malacophyllus(Pall.) Fisch., (4). Orostachyl spinosus(L.) C.A.Mey. They are plants of the Orostachys Fisch. Genus, the Crassulaceae family of the Rosales order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Orostachys fimbriatus(Turcz.)Berg.

 Orostachys fimbriatus Turcz.Berg:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Wǎ Sōnɡ. Biennial or perennial herb, grows up to 10~40 cm tall. The plant is pink green, glabrous, with dense purple-red spots. Roots are much-branched, fibrous. Stem is erect, unbranched. Basal leaves' rosette, fleshy, spatulate linear to oblanceolate, 2~4 cm long, 4~5 mm wide, greenish purplish or glaucous, margin fringed, apex with semicircular cartilaginous appendage, center with 1 acicular spine; Stem leaves are alternate, sessile, linear to lanceolate, 2~3 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, apex long acuminate, entire. Inflorescences racemose, compact, subdivided into spires; Flowers are small, bisexual, bracts linear acuminate, leaf-like; 5 sepals, oblong, 1~3 mm long; 5 petals, reddish, lanceolate elliptic, 5~6 mm long, base slightly connate; 10 stamens, 2-rotund, as long as petals or slightly shorter, anthers purple; 5 carpels, detached, 1 scale attached at base of each carpel, nearly quadrate. Follicles, oblong, ca. 5 mm long, beak slender, ca. 1 mm. Seeds numerous, minute, ovate. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to November.

 Orostachys fimbriatus Turcz.Berg:plant growing on roof Ecological Environment: The plant grows on hillside stones or roof tiles. It mainly distributes in the north, east area, and the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, China.

 Orostachys fimbriatus Turcz.Berg:plant growing on rock Characters of herbs: The stem of the herb is slender cylindrical, yellow-brown or dark brown, with a length of 12~20 cm or 5~27 cm and a diameter of 2~6 mm, leaving scars after most leaves fall off, which are interconnected into prismatic patterns. The leaves are green or yellowish-brown, with many leaves falling off, shrinking and curling, grayish-green, 12~15 mm long and 3 mm wide. Small flowers grow on the upper stems and leaves, which are reddish-brown, and the petioles of small flowers vary in length. The texture of the herb is light and brittle, fragile. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sour.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.cardiotonic effect; ②.obvious antipyretic effect; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.analgesic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, cool blood, hemostasis(stanch bleeding), remove dampness through diuresis, detumescence(reduce swelling), deliquescent and collect sores. It is indicated for the treatment of hememesis(spitting blood), epistaxis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia(pass blood in stool), bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), hepatitis, malaria, pyretic stranguria(heat stranguria), irregular menstruation, hemorrhoids, malignant boils, carbuncle, eczema, ulcers and malignant boils, scalds, burns of soup and fire, pneumonia, cervical erosion, chyluria, etc.

 Administration of Herba Orostachyos(Wǎ Sōnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Orostachyos(Wǎ Sōnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams.Externally:proper amount,prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick;②.Internally:water decoction,1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill. Externally:mashed and apply stick, fumigation wash with water decoction, or charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~15 grams, extract juice, or prepare to pill. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick;or fumigation wash with water decoction, or prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.

(2).Orstachys erubescens(Maxim.)Ohwi.

 Orstachys erubescens Maxim.Ohwi:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Wǎn Hóng Wǎ Sōnɡ. Biennial herbs. Rosette first year only, fleshy, narrowly spatulate or lanceolate, 1.5~3 cm long, 4~7 mm wide, apex long acuminate, slightly curved, cartilaginous spines, entire or with fine undulate teeth; In the second year, the flower stem is extracted from the rosette leaves, 10~40 cm high, erect, the whole plant is covered with white powder, dense brown-red glandular points. Leaves are linear to linear-lanceolate on the flower stem, 2~6 cm long, 3~7 mm wide, apex long acuminate, dried with red spots. Racemes conical, flowers dense, inflorescence with leaf bracts, ovate-lanceolate or sickle-shaped; 5 sepals, ca. 4 mm; 5 petals, white or reddish, linear-lanceolate, 4~6 mm long, 1.8 mm wide; 10 stamens, 2-wheeled, slightly shorter than petals, anthers dark purple; 5 scales, nearly quadrate, first emarginate; 5 carpels, erect, detached, base acute, style slender, 2 mm long. Follicles, ca. 5 mm long. The seeds are about 1 mm long, brown. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to November.

 Orstachys erubescens Maxim.Ohwi:growing plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows on low rocks or beside gullies. It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

(3).Orost achys malacophyllus(Pall.)Fisch.

 Orost achys malacophyllus Pall.Fisch.:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Dùn Yè Wǎ Sōnɡ. Biennial herbs. Plants form rosette in 1st year, rosette leaves densely oblong-lanceolate, lateral ovate or elliptic, 2~4 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate, not spiny, entire, densely with dark red spots. Stems from rosette in 2nd year, unbranched, 10~30 cm tall, leaves alternate on stem, larger than rosette, 7 cm long. Inflorescence racemose, sometimes spicate, flowers dense; Bracts spatulate ovately; 5 sepals, oblong, 3~4 mm long, acute; 5 petals, white or greenish, ovate-oblong, 4~6 mm long; 10 stamens, 2-wheeled, longer than petals; 5 scales, oblong, ca. 0.3 mm long, apex emarginate; 5 carpels, ovate, detached, style ca. 1 mm. Fruit follicles ellipsoid. Seeds numerous, minute, ovate-oblong, with longitudinal streaks. It is flowering in July, fruiting from August to September.

 Orost achys malacophyllus Pall.Fisch.:growing plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows in a rock seam at an altitude of 1,200~1,800 meters. It distributes in Hebei and other areas of China.

(4).Orostachyl spinosus(L.)C.A.Mey.

 Orostachyl spinosus L.C.A.Mey.:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Huáng Huā Wǎ Sōnɡ. Biennial herbs. In the first year, plants form a rosette, with dense rosette leaves, oblong leaves, with a semicircular white cartilaginous appendage at the apex, and a 2~4 mm long spine in the center. In the second year, flower stems are extracted from the rosette, grows up to 10~30 cm high. Leaves alternate on the flower stem, sessile, broadly linear to oblanceolate, 1~3 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, apex acuminate, spinose. Inflorescences spike or racemose, terminal, 5~20 cm long; Pedicels ca. 1 mm or sessile; Bracts lanceolate to oblong, up to 4 mm long, apex acuminate, spiny; 5 sepals, ovate-oblong, 2~3 mm long, apex spiny, reddish spotted; 5 petals, yellow-green, ovate-lanceolate, 5~7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; 10 stamens, slightly longer than petals; 5 scales, subsquare, ca. 0.7 mm long, apex emarginate; 5 carpels, lanceolate. Follicles, ellipsoid lanceolate, 5~6 mm long, margin 1.5 mm. Seeds are oblong-ovate. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting in September.

 Orostachyl spinosus L.C.A.Mey.:growing plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the stone crevices of dry hillside or on the stone cliff and sandy grassland of riverbank. It distributes in northwest area of China, mainly Gansu, Xinjiang, and other areas.
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