Introduction of Wu Yao:Combined Spicebush Root or Radix Linderae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Combined Spicebush Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Lindera aggregata(Sims)Kosterm., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Combined Spicebush Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Linderae(Combined Spicebush Root).

Radix Linderae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Wū Yào.
 English Name: Combined Spicebush Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Linderae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Linderae is the dried tuberous root of Lindera aggregata(Sims) Kosterm. (family Lauraceae), used to move Qi, alleviate pain, warm the kidney and dispel cold for relieving distension and pain in the lower abdomen, frequent micturition, and enuresis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Linderae, Combined Spicebush Root, Wū Yào.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Linderae(Combined Spicebush Root) as the dried tuberous root of the species (1).Lindera aggregata(Sims) Kosterm. It is a plant of the Lindera Thunb. Genus, the Lauraceae family of the Ranales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Lindera aggregata(Sims)Kosterm.

 Lindera aggregata Sims Kosterm:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Wū Yào. Herbs, evergreen shrubs or small trees, it grows up to 4~5 meters high. The root is woody, swollen stout, slightly rosary. The bark is grayish-green. Branchlets densely rust-colored pubescent when young, smooth glabrous when old; Stem and branch are tough, not easy to break. Alternate, leathery, elliptic to broadly obovate, 3~8 cm long, 1.5~5 cm wide, apex acuminate or caudate acuminate, the base is rounded or broadly cuneate, entire, the upper part is green, glossy, glabrous except for midrib, lower part is pale, covered with pale brown villous, later becoming smooth, 3 veins, basal, very distinct; Petiole is short, pubescent. Inflorescence umbellate axillary, scarcely scabellate; Pedicel is 1.5~3 mm long, hairy, clustered with many florets; Flowers are unisexual, dioecious, yellow-green; Perianth is composed of 6 pieces, the size is a few equal, wide elliptic, male flower has 9 stamens, arrange 3 round, the base of the innermost round has gland, anther 2 room; Female flowers have several stamens, ovary superior, spherical, 1 loculus, 1 ovule. Drupes are subglobose, green at first, black when ripe. Its flowering period is from March to April, fruiting from October to November.

 Lindera aggregata Sims Kosterm:drawing of whole plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in the shrubbery of the slope facing the sun or the forest margin and the piedmont, the field, and so on. It distributes in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the west of Zhujiang river area, southwest, northwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Lindera aggregata prefers subtropical climate, strong adaptability. It is advisable to cultivate in acid soil with abundant sunshine and loose and fertile soil.

 Combined Spicebush Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The lindera root is spindle-shaped or round, slightly curved, and some middle parts shrink into a beaded shape, which is commonly called "Lindera root bead", with a length of 5~15 cm and a diameter of 1~3 cm. The surface is yellowish-brown or grayish-brown, with thin longitudinal wrinkles and sparse thin root marks. The texture of the herb is very hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface is yellow and white. The herb has an aromatic odor, it tastes slightly bitter, pungent, and cool. The herb of better grade is big, fat, tender, the fracture surface has a strong aroma; The old herb with straight roots and not spindle-shaped is not suitable for medicinal use.

 The lindera root slice is a transverse circular slice with a thickness of 1~5 mm or less. The fracture surface is yellowish-white to light brown and reddish, with radial texture, there are visible ring patterns, the color of the center part is darker. The texture of the herb is crisp.

 Lindera aggregata Sims Kosterm:fruiting plant Pharmacological actions: ①.stimulate and inhibit(the bidirectional regulation) gastrointestinal smooth muscle and promote the secretion of digestive juice; ②.accelerate blood circulation; ③.hepatoprotective; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.antibacterial; ⑥.hemostasis(stanch bleeding); ⑦.anticoagulation; ⑧.antihistamine; ⑨.anti-tumor, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Guiding Qi downward and relieve pain, expelling stagnation, warm the kidney, and disperse cold. It is indicated for distention and pain of chest and abdomen due to reversed flow of Qi, distension and fullness in chest and hypochondrium, epigastric distended pain, abdominal distention and pain, dyspnea due to reverse flow of Qi, urinary bladder deficiency and cold, dyspepsia and indigestion, nausea and vomiting, headache, hernia, cold hernia, cold hernia and pain, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), postpartum abdominal pain, beriberi, frequent urination, enuresis, etc.

 Administration of Radix Linderae(Wū Yào): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Linderae(Wū Yào)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), extract juice, or prepare to pill,powder;③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The old root and straight root not in shape of cambiform could not be used as herb. The herb Radix Linderae should be used cautiously during pregnancy and physical weakness. Should better not use the herb in conditons advanced menstruation.

Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.
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