Introduction of Xiang Yuan:Citron Fruit or Fructus Citri.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Citron Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Citrus medica L., ②.Citrus wilsonii Tanaka., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Citron Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit).

Fructus Citri:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiānɡ Yuán.
 English Name: Citron Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Citri.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Citri is the dried ripe fruit of Citrus medica L. or Citrus wilsonii Tanaka, used to soothe the liver, regulate Qi, and resolve phlegm for the treatment of gastric distension with pain and fullness sensation in the chest, as well as cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Citri, Citron Fruit, Xiānɡ Yuán.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1). Citrus medica L., or (2). Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. They are plants of the Citrus L. genus, the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) of the Rutales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Citrus medica L.

 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree and dried fruit Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Jǔ Yuán. Small evergreen tree or shrub. Branches are with short hard spines, shoots are smooth, purplish red. Leaves are alternate; Stipitate, wingless, or slightly imperceptible, with no obvious joint between blades; Leaf blade is oblong or obovate-oblong, 8~15 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide, the apex is obtuse or shortly pointed, the base is broadly cuneate, margin serrate, with translucent oil gland points. Racemes, 3~10 peanuts in leaf axils; Hermaphroditic flowers or by pistil degenerated into male flowers, with a short stalk; Calyx is shallow cup-shaped, upper end is 5-lobed; 5 petals, white on the inside, mauve on the outside; 30~60 stamens; 1 pistil, ovary has 10~13 locules, ovule numerous in each locule, style is hypertrophic, persistent, stigma is capitate. Orange fruit is oblong, ovate or subglobose, 10~25 cm long, apex is papillary, rough or smooth, lemon yellow when mature, aromatic, small flesh capsule; Seeds are ovoid, smooth surface. Its flowering period is in April and fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree Ecological environment: The plant grows in a high-temperature much-wet environment, it is to originate more in the southern area. In the broad-leaved forest of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, there is citron in a semi-wild state. It is distributed and produced in the Zhujiang river area, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of south China. It is also distributed in several other countries in South Asia including Laos, Myanmar.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Citrus medica prefers a warm and humid climate, afraid of severe frost, not resistant to cold. It is advisable to cultivate in sandy soil with deep soil, loose and fertile soil, rich in humus, and good drainage.

 Citron Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is a round or oblong slice with a diameter of 3~10 cm and a thickness of about 2~5 mm. The edge of the cross-section is slightly wavy, and the exocarp is yellow-green or light orange-yellow, with concave oil spots scattered. The mesocarp is 1.5~3.5 cm thick, yellow and white, coarse and rough, with irregular reticular protrusions (vascular bundles). The capsularfruit has 11~16 valves, and sometimes brown-red shriveled juice cells remain. 1~2 seeds. The central axis is obvious, as wide as 1.2 cm. The texture of the herb is soft and flexible. The herb has a fragrant odor, it tastes slightly sweet and bitter pungent. The herb of better grade has yellow-white slices and a strong fragrance.

 Citrus medica L.:fresh fruit Pharmacological actions: ①.promote gastrointestinal peristalsis; ②.expectorant; ③.inhibit thrombosis.

 Medicinal efficacy: Soothe the liver and regulating Qi, regulating Qi and calm the adverse-rising energy, relieve stagnation, relieve diaphragm, relieving stuffiness of the chest, reduce phlegm. It is indicated for the stagnation of liver-QI and stomach-QI, stomachache distension and fullness, fullness pain in chest and hypochondrium, fullness and stuffy in chest and abdomen, epigastric belly puffiness, vomiting and belching, vomit and poor appetite, much phlegm and cough, phlegm and retained fluid with cough, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Citri (Xiānɡ Yuán): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Citri (Xiānɡ Yuán)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1~2 qian (about 3~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams, prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Citri should be used cautiously in conditions Qi deficiency during pregnancy.

(2).Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.

 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiānɡ Yuán. Evergreen trees, it grows up to 9~11 meters tall. The entire plant is glabrous, with short spines. Leaves are alternate; Petiole with broad wings inverted cordate, about 1/3 or l/4 of the leaf blade; Leaf blade is leathery, elliptic or oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is short, obtuse or acuminate, slightly concave head, base is obtuse, entire or undulate serrate, both surfaces are glabrous, with translucent oil gland points. Flowers are solitary or clustered, also into racemes, white flowers; 25~36 stamens; Ovary 10-11. Orange fruit is oblong, round or oblong, transverse diameter 5~9 cm, apex is papillary protuberance, peel usually rough and wrinkled or smooth, orange-yellow when ripe, fragrant; Many seeds. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting treeCitrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: The herb is spherical or round slices with a diameter of 4~7 cm. The surface is gray-green or yellowish-brown, coarse and rough, densely covered with small concave oil spots, with style remnants and circular ring patterns at the top, which is commonly called "golden coin ring", there are fruit stalk marks at the base. The texture of the herb is hard, with obvious oil spots on the edge of the cross-section, the mesocarp is about 0.5 cm thick, the capsularfruit has 9~12 valves, brown or light brown, with yellow and white seeds. The herb has a fragrant odor, it tastes sour and bitter. The herb of better grade is the big, coarse pericarp, dark green, with a strong fragrance.
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