Introduction of Xiang Yuan:Citron Fruit or Fructus Citri.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

 
Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit).

Fructus Citri:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiānɡ Yuán.
 English Name: Citron Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Citri.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Citri is the dried ripe fruit of Citrus medica L. or Citrus wilsonii Tanaka(family Rutaceae), used to soothe the liver, regulate Qi, and resolve phlegm for the treatment of gastric distension with pain and fullness sensation in the chest, as well as cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Citri, Citron Fruit, Xiānɡ Yuán.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1). Citrus medica L., or (2). Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. They are plants of the Citrus L. genus, the Rutaceae family of the Rutales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Citrus medica L.


 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree and dried fruit Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Jǔ Yuán. Small evergreen tree or shrub. Branches with short hard spines, shoots smooth, purplish red. Leaves are alternate; Stipitate, wingless, or slightly imperceptible, with no obvious joint between blades; Leaf blade is oblong or obovate-oblong, 8~15 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide, the apex is obtuse or shortly acute, the base is broadly cuneate, margin serrate, with translucent oil gland points. Racemes, 3~10 peanuts in leaf axils; Hermaphroditic flowers or by pistil degenerated into male flowers, with a short stalk; Calyx is shallow cup-shaped, upper end 5-lobed; 5 petals, white on the inside, mauve on the outside; 30~60 stamens; 1 pistil, ovary 10~13 locules, ovule numerous in each locule, style is hypertrophy, persistent, stigma capitate. Orange fruit is oblong, ovate or subglobose, 10~25 cm long, apex papillary, rough or smooth, lemon yellow when ripe, aromatic, small flesh capsule; Seeds are ovoid, smooth surface. Its flowering period is in April and fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree Ecological environment: The plant grows in a high-temperature much-wet environment, it is to originate more in the southern area. In the broad-leaved forest of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, there is citron in a semi-wild state. It distributes and produced in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Taiwan, and other areas of south China. It also distributes in several other countries in South Asia including Laos, Myanmar.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Citrus medica prefers a warm and humid climate, afraid of severe frost, not resistant to cold. It is advisable to cultivate in sandy soil with deep soil, loose and fertile soil, rich in humus, and good drainage.

 Citron Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The fruit is round or oblong, 3~10 cm in diameter, and 2~5 mm in thickness. The edge of the cross-section is slightly undulated, the pericarp is yellowish-green or light orange-yellow, scattered with concave oil points; Pericarp is 1.5~3.5 cm thick, yellow-white, rough, with irregular reticulate projections (vascular bundles). 11~16 petals, sometimes brown-red pinched vesicles remain. 1 or 2 seeds. The central axis is prominent, up to 1.2 cm wide. Quality, and the flexible. It is fragrant, slightly sweet, and bitter. The herb with pack yellow and white with thick fragrance is better.

 Citrus medica L.:fresh fruit Pharmacological actions: ①.promote gastrointestinal peristalsis; ②.expectorant; ③.inhibit thrombosis.

 Medicinal efficacy: Soothe the liver and regulating Qi, regulating Qi and calm the adverse-rising energy, relieve stagnation, relieve diaphragm, relieving stuffiness of the chest, reduce phlegm. It is indicated for the stagnation of liver-QI and stomach-QI, stomachache distension and fullness, fullness pain in chest and hypochondrium, fullness and stuffy in chest and abdomen, epigastric belly puffiness, vomiting and belching, vomit and poor appetite, much phlegm and cough, phlegm and retained fluid with cough, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Citri(Xiānɡ Yuán): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Citri(Xiānɡ Yuán)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,1~2 qian(about 3~6 grams),or prepare to pill, powder(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams, prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Citri should be used cautiously in conditions Qi deficiency during pregnancy.

(2).Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.


 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiānɡ Yuán. Evergreen trees, it grows up to 9~11 meters tall. The entire plant is glabrous, with short spines. Leaves are alternate; Petiole with broad wings inverted cordate, about 1/3 or l/4 of the leaf blade; Leaf blade is leathery, elliptic or oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is short, obtuse or acuminate, slightly concave head, base obtuse, entire or undulate serrate, both surfaces are glabrous, with translucent oil gland points. Flowers are solitary or clustered, also into racemes, white flowers; 25~36 stamens; Ovary 10-11. Orange fruit is oblong, round or oblong, transverse diameter 5~9 cm, apex papillary protuberance, peel usually rough and wrinkled or smooth, orange-yellow when ripe, fragrant; Many seeds. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting treeCitrus wilsonii Tanaka.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: The fruit is spherical or circular, 4~7 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-green or yellowish-brown, relatively rough, dense depression small oil point, the top of the style residual mark and circle shape ring, the base of the stalk mark. It is hard, with obvious oil spots at the edge of cross-section, medium peel about 0.5 cm thick, 9~12 petals, brown or light brown, with yellow and white seeds. It smells good and tastes sour and bitter. The big herb, with thick skin, color black green, the strong fragrance is better.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xiang Yuan:Citron Fruit or Fructus Citri.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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