Introduction of Fu Shen:Fu-shen or Poria cum Radice Pino.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fu-shen, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one fungus species, ①.Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this fungus species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this fungus species, the features of the herb Fu-shen, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Poria cum Radice Pino(Fu-shen).

Poria cum Radice Pino:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Fú Shén.
 English Name: Fu-shen.
 Latin Name: Poria cum Radice Pino.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes sweet and tasteless.

 Brief introduction: The herb Poria cum Radice Pino is the herb consists of poria with a piece of pine root embedded in it, used as a tranquilizer for treating palpitations and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Poria cum Radice Pino, Tuckahoe with pine, Fú Shén.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Poria cum Radice Pino(Fu-Shen) as the Tuckahoe scleral nucleus holds the part of pine root or fine pine core. The fungus species (1).Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. is a fungus of the Wolfiporia genus, the Polyporaceae family(Poroid fungi family) of the Polyporales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf.

 Poria cocos Schw. Wolf.:many poria fungus and pine tree stool Botanical description: The Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf., is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family (Poroid fungi family) and Wolfiporia genus, it is also known as "Wolfiporia extensa", "Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns (syn. Poria cocos F.A.Wolf)", the fungus is also known as "hoelen, poria, tuckahoe, China root, fu ling.", and classified into Fomitopsidaceae family in some latest classification system. Sclerotia is spherical, oval, oval to an irregular shape, the length is 10~30 cm or longer, the weight is not the same, usually weighing 500~5,000 grams. Thick and wrinkled skin outside, dark brown, hardened when fresh, soft and dry, white or light pink inside, powdery and granular. Entomophores grow on the surface of the sclerotia, the thickness is 3~8 cm, white, fleshy, aged, or dried into a light brown. Trichoderma is 2~3 mm long with a thin tube wall, nozzle round, polygonal or irregular shape, diameter is 0.5~1.5 cm, split lip toothed. The spore is rectangular to nearly cylindrical, smooth, with a crooked tip, size (7.5-9) μm × (3-3.5) μm.

 The Poria showed three different morphological characteristics at different stages of development, namely mycelium, sclerotia, and fruiting bodies.

  Poria cocos Schw. Wolf:the fungus and pine trunk. (1).Mycelium, including mononuclear and dual-core two mycelia. Monomer nuclear mycelium is also known as primary mycelium, is made by the Poria spores germination, only in the early germination. Binuclear mycelium, also known as secondary mycelium, is the main form of mycelium, by two different sex mononuclear mycelia, by the quality of the formation with. Mycelium has a white fluffy appearance, with a unique multi-concentric ring-shaped colony. Observed under a microscope, we can see mycelium by many branched mycelia, hyphae by the diaphragm are divided into linear cells, the width of 2~5 microns, the top common to the lock-like joint phenomenon.

 (2).Sclerotia, by numerous hyphae and nutrients, gathered from the dormant body. It is also known as "Tuckahoe or fu-ling". Spherical, ellipsoid, oblate or irregular lumps; small two, the largest number of pounds, tens of pounds; fresh matter soft quality, easy to open. Sclerotium outer is shell-like, rough surface, with tumor-like shrinkage, fresh light brown or tan, dry to dark brown; skin is white and light brown. Observed under a microscope, the mycelium in the white part of the mycelium is mostly lotus-like joints or extruded mass. Near the skin at the more slender and arranged dense light brown hyphae.

 (3).Fruiting bodies, usually produce on the surface of sclerotia, occasionally in the older mycelium. Honeycomb, different sizes, sessile supine, about 0.3~1 cm thick. At first white, the old woody into light yellow. The stratum grows on the surface of the inner wall of the tube and consists of numerous heavy loads. Mature burdens each produce 4 spores (ie basidiospores). Poria spores are gray-white, oblong or nearly cylindrical, a crooked tip, 6×2.5 ~ 11×3.5 microns.

  Poria cocos Schw. Wolf.:the fungus is dig out. Ecological Environment: The Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf., is a facultative parasitic fungus, wild species grow at the area with an altitude of 600~1,000 meters above sea level, in the mountains dry and sunny hillside, at the rhizosphere of the Masson pine, Pinus thunbergii, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus thunbergii other trees, deep underground 20 to 30 cm. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area of China.

 The Poria cocos, is not the same species as the "Indian bread" of Native Americans, the "Indian bread" is the arrow arum, Peltandra virginica, a flowering tuberous plant in the arum family.

 Fu-shen:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is the same shape as the block of Poria cocos, but there is a solid, thin pine root in the core part. Most of the commodities are square slices, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, powdery, the cut pine roots are brown and yellow, and the annual texture is visible in the fracture surface. The herb has a slight odor, mild taste. The herb of better grade is thick, with a thin and small pine root.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.sedative effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Peace the heart, calm the nerve (relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization) and alleviate water retention. It is indicated for heart deficiency and palpitation, amnesia (poor memory), amnesia and insomnia (bad memory and lose sleep), frightened epilepsy, dysuria (difficulty in micturition), etc.

 Administration of Poria cum Radice Pino (Fú Shén): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Poria cum Radice Pino (Fú Shén)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ②.Internally:water decoction, 9~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.

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