Introduction of Du Zhong:Eucommia Bark or Cortex Eucommiae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Eucommia Bark, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Eucommia Bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Cortex Eucommiae(Eucommia Bark).
Pin Yin Name: Dù Zhònɡ.
English Name: Eucommia Bark.
Latin Name: Cortex Eucommiae.
Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Cortex Eucommiae is the dried stem-bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., used to tonify the liver and kidney, strengthen the tendons and bones, and prevent miscarriages for the treatment of aching back and knees, impotence, frequent micturition, threatened abortion, and nowadays for hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Eucommiae, Eucommia Bark, Dù Zhònɡ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Eucommia Bark(Du Zhong) as the dry bark(cortex) of the Eucommiaceae family plant species (1). Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. It is a plant of the Eucommia genus, the Eucommiaceae family of the Eucommiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Botanical description: The Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., is a plant of the Eucommiaceae family and Eucommia genus, it is commonly known as Dù Zhònɡ. Deciduous tree, it grows up to 20 meters high, the diameter of the old tree is up to about 50 cm.
The bark is gray-brown, rough, containing rubber, broken open most filaments. Twigs have brown hair, soon become hairless, old branches have obvious lenticels. Bud is ovoid, shiny outside, reddish-brown, scale 6~8, edges are hairy.
Leaves are elliptic, oval or oblong, thin leathery, 6~15 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide. The base is rounded or broadly cuneate, apex is acuminate; dark green at the upper part, initially with brown pilose, soon became hairless, the old leaves are slightly wrinkled, the following light green, the first brown hair, after the only hairy veins. 6~9 pairs of lateral veins, subtending above reticulate veins, slightly raised at lower, margin serrate, petiole is 1~2 cm long, with grooves above, scattered loose hairs.
Flowers grow at the base of branchlets, the male inflorescence is free; pedicel is ca. 3 mm, glabrous; bracts are obovate-spatulate, 6~8 mm long, top rounded, margin lashes, caducous; stamens are ca. 1 cm, glabrous, filaments are ca. 1 mm, prominently spaced, sliver slender, degenerate pistils. Female flowers are solitary, bracts are obovate, pedicel is 8 mm long, the ovary is glabrous, 1-chamber, flat and long, apex is 2-lobed, the ovary is very short. Samara is flattened, oblong, 3~3.5 cm long, 1~1.3 cm wide, apex is 2-lobed, base is cuneate, with thin wings around.
Nut is located in the center, slightly raised, the ovary is 2~3 mm in length, with stalk joints at the joints. Seeds are flat, linear, 1.4~1.5 cm long, 3 mm wide, round at both ends. It is flowering in early spring, fruits mature after autumn.
Characters of herbs: The bark is flat plate-shaped, roll-shaped, or pieces with two sides slightly rolled inward, with different sizes, the thickness is 2~7 mm or 3~7 mm. The outer surface is light gray-brown or taupe, flat or coarse, with obvious longitudinal wrinkles or irregular longitudinal fissure grooves, some bark is thin, some bark is with a layer of coarse bark, the bark with coarse layer is oblique square and has transverse fissure lenticels, and sometimes there are light gray lichen spots. The inner surface is dark purple-brown or reddish-brown, smooth. The texture of the herb is brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is coarse, connected by fine silvery-white and elastic rubber threads. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter, there is gelatinous residue when chewed. The herb of better grade has thick and large bark, shaved coarse bark layer, a dark purple inner surface, and many silvery-white rubber threads on the fracture surface.
Ecological Environment: The Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., grows at the area with an altitude of 300~500 meters above sea level, in the low mountains, valleys, or low slope of the woods, the choice of soil is not strict, it can grow in the infertile laterite, or rocky cliffs. Geographical distribution: This species is native to China, and is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Huai River area, north, southwest, northwest area of China, it is widely planted throughout China.
Growth characteristics: The Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. prefers a warm and humid climate and a sunny environment, which can withstand the cold. The plants can survive normally under the condition of -30 °C (Celsius, or -22 degrees Fahrenheit) and can be cultivated in most areas of China. They are highly adaptable and have no strict selection of soil. The growth rate of the Eucommia genus tree was relatively slow in the early stage, and the rapid growth stage appeared in 7~20 years. After 20 years, the growth rate decreased year by year. After 50 years, tree height growth is stopped, and the plant wilted naturally. It grows more often in an area with altitude 300~500 meters, in low mountain, valley, or slope of a thin forest, the choice of soil is not strict, in barren red soil, or rock cliff.
Till today, there are up to 14 species of Eucommia have been found on Earth, and they were subsequently extinct in continent Asia and Europe. The Eucommia existing in China is the only remaining relict species of the Eucommiaceae family and Eucommia genus.
1.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 1:
Young tree bark is smooth, adult bark is with a shallow longitudinal split. The tree is strong, compact crown, wide conical, branch angle 35°~ 47°, the trunk is straight, tolerance of cold, drought, -27 °C (Celsius, or -16.6 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature from frost damage. Buds are peach-shape, germination of early, strong sprouting, 4-year-old stake can sprout 27 to 34. More dense leaves, internode length is 3.4 cm. Leaves are broadly oval; dark green, the length is 16.9 cm, width is 7.6 cm, petiole length is 1.5 cm. Male flowers blooming from early March to mid-April, the male flower has 6 to 10 clusters grow at the base of branches. A 5-year-old tree grows up to 7.0 meter, DBH 10.4 cm, per hectare of 4.5 tons of hides and leaves, leaf yield 6.4 tons. It is suitable for all producing areas to create fast-growing high yield forests.
2.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 2:
Young tree bark is smooth, adult bark is with deep longitudinal split, lenticels are not visible. The crown opening is round-shaped, the sub-edge angle of 43°~ 64°, the trunk is straight, drought-resistant, prefers water. Bud is long conical, sprouting in early March. Leaves are dark green, bright, was broadly ovoid, length is 17.4 cm, width is 8.4 cm, petiole length is 1.6 cm, leaf curls inward. The branch length is 3.4 cm. Female flowers blooming from April 1st to April 15th, 6~12 female flowers, single branches in the current year branches. The fruit is oval, mature in mid-September to mid-October, 3.2 cm long, width is 1.2 cm, grafted seedlings fruiting in 3 years, the 5-year-old tree grows up to 7.3 meters, diameter is 9.6 cm, 4.2 tons of hay per hectare, leaf yield 6.2 tons. It is suitable for all producing areas to establish seed plantations, orchards, and fast-growing forests.
3.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 3:
Young tree bark is smooth, adult bark with a shallow longitudinal split. Crown open, branch angle of 44°~ 82°, the trunk is straight, according to dry ability. Saline resistance, drought resistance, leaves are small, sparse, narrow oval, leaf length is 16.2 cm; width is 7.3 cm, petiole length is 1.6 cm, internode length is 3.3 cm. Bud is long conical, sprouting in early March, the female flowers blooming from April 1 to April 15, 6 to 14 female flowers, single grows at the base of branches that year. The fruit is oval, mature in early September to early October, 3.0 cm long, width is 1.1 cm. Grafted seedlings fruiting in 3 years, a 5-year-old tree grows up to 7.6 meters; DBH is 9.2 cm, 4.8 tons per hectare of hides and skins, leaf yield 5.9 tons; It is suitable for all producing areas, especially in a drought, saline-alkali areas to create a fast-growing forest and seed garden.
4.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 4:
Young tree bark and adult bark are smooth, clear skin perforation is obvious, crown-shaped compact, oval, branching angle of 39°~ 53°, the trunk is straight, seedling by the top side buds easily sprouting branches, lateral buds grow strong, crown easy to shape. Cold-resistant, drought-resistant, -27 °C (Celsius, or -16.6 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature from frost damage. Bud is conical, sprouting in early March, dense leaves, leaf length is 17.1 cm, width 7.9 cm, petiole length is 1.7 cm, internode length is 2.8 cm. Female flowers blooming from April 1st to April 15th, 6~14 female flowers, a single flower grows at the base of the branches. The fruit is oval, mature from mid-September to mid-October, fruit length is 3.2 cm, width 1.2 cm. Grafted seedlings fruiting in 3 years, a 5-year-old tree grows up to 7.4 meters, DBH 9.2 cm, per hectare of skin yield 5.0 tons, leaf yield 6.3 tons. It is suitable for all producing areas, especially in the northern region to create the fast-growing forest.
5.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 5:
Young tree bark is smooth, adult bark is with a deep longitudinal split. The trunk is straight, the crown is oval. Cold-resistant, drought-resistant. Branching angle of 37°~ 49°, larger leaves, length 18.7 cm, width 7.3 cm, petiole length is 1.7 cm, internode length is 3.4 cm. Bud is peach-shape, germination in late February. Male flowers blooming from early March to mid-April, 6 to 11 clusters of male flowers grow at the base of branches. A 5-year-old tree grows up to 7.2 meters high, DBH is 9.5 cm, 5.3 tons of hay per hectare, leaf yield 6.5 tons. It is suitable for producing areas to create a fast-growing forest.
Pharmacological actions: ①.antihypertensive effect; ②.diuretic effect; ③.regulating cellular immune balance, affect the nonspecific immune function; ④.influence on pituitary-adrenal cortex function; ⑤.antitumor effect; ⑥.anti-inflammatory effects; ⑦.inhibitory effect of uterus; ⑧.roborant actions; ⑨.influence the plasma contents of cAMP and cGMP, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Tonify the liver and kidney, strengthening the bones and muscles, miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for liver and kidney deficiency, soreness pain of waist and knees, flaccidity and weakness of feet and knees, the feebleness of tendons and bones, asynodia (impotence or impotentia), frequent urination, dribbling urination, wet and itching at the genital region, rheumatic arthralgia pain, dizziness and dazzled, threatened abortion during pregnancy, threatened abortion, habitual abortion, hypertension (high blood pressure), etc.
Administration of Cortex Eucommiae (Dù Zhònɡ):
Administration Guide of Cortex Eucommiae (Dù Zhònɡ)
①.Internally:6~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams);infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,6~15 grams;or infusing in wine;or prepared to pill, powder.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Cortex Eucommiae should should not be combined with Snakeskin, Radix Scrophulariae.
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1.Introduction of Du Zhong:Eucommia Bark or Cortex Eucommiae.