Introduction of Suo Yang:Songaria Cynomorium Herb or Herba Cynomorii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Songaria Cynomorium Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Songaria Cynomorium Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Cynomorii(Songaria Cynomorium Herb).

many brownish root slices of Herba Cynomorii are piled together Pin Yin Name: Suǒ Yánɡ.
 English Name: Songaria Cynomorium Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Cynomorii.
 Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Cynomorii is the dried succulent stem of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., used (1).to reinforce kidney Yang for the treatment of impotence, seminal emission, and (2).as a mild laxative for chronic constipation in the aged. The herb is commonly known as Herba Cynomorii, Songaria Cynomorium Herb, Suǒ Yánɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Cynomorii (Suo Yang) as the succulent stem (or the whole herb) of the species (1).Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. It is a plant species of the Cynomorium songaricum genus, the Cynomoriaceae family (Cynomoriaceae Endl. ex Lindl. family) of the Myrtales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cynomorium songaricum Rupr.

 a plant of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. grows in arid grass field Botanical description: Cynomorium songaricum Rupr is a plant of the Cynomoriaceae family(Cynomoriaceae Endl. ex Lindl. family) and Cynomorium L. genus, it is also known as Cynomorium coccineum L.,commonly known as Cynomorium songaricum, Songaria Cynomorium Herb, or Suǒ Yánɡ (means to lock the Yang). A perennial succulent parasitic herb, with no chlorophyll, it grows up to 10–100 cm high. The stem is cylindrical-shaped, dark purplish red or red. The underground stem is short and thick, and has many tubercular and protuberant absorbing roots. Stems are succulent and cylindrical, the lower part is buried in soil, usually, only the apical part is above ground, and the base is slightly enlarged, 3-6 cm in diameter. Scaly leaves are alternate, dense at the base of the stem, in an imbricate arrangement, the upper part is sparsely spirally arranged, length reaches 1 cm, width is less than 1 cm, and the apex is pointed.

 a plant of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr grows in field Flowers are monoecious, spikes are apical, succulent, clavate, 5-12 cm long, 2-4 cm in diameter, flowerets (floscules) are dense, covered with scaly bracts; flowers are dark purple; the male flower has 1-6 tepals (perianth lobes), linear (filate), 1 pistil, longer than perianth, pistillode is indistinctive or sometimes is obovate protuberant; the female flower has several linear succulent involucre bracts, one of them is broader and bigger, tapel (perianth lobe) is clavate, 1 pistil, the ovary is inferior or half-inferior, style is clavate; hermaphroditic flower bloom before male flower bloom, has 1 stamen and 1 pistil.

 Nut fruits are spheric in shape (globular), and very small. Its flowering period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is from August to September.

 several plants of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. grow in desert field The herb is collected in spring and autumn, the herb that is collected in spring is better. After removing the exhumed inflorescence, and storing it in its semi-buried, semi-air state, the top part is dried.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in dry, sandy areas or desert areas, and parasitizes on the root of Nitraria sibirica Pall of the Zygophyllaceae family. Geographical distribution: It is mainly distributed in the northwest area, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang provinces, and other areas of China.

 several brownish dried root slices of Songaria Cynomorium Herb are piled together Characters of herbs: The dried whole herb is flat cylindrical or slightly thin at one end, slightly curved, and mostly cut into segments, 5~15 cm or 8~21 cm long, 1.5~5 cm in diameter, or 2~5 cm in diameter. The surface is brown, reddish-brown to dark brown, coarse and rough, wrinkled and uneven, has many conspicuous longitudinal grooves and transverse intermittent shallow grinding cracks, some have triangular black-brown scales remained, and in some inflorescences, the place where cork bark falls off has fine vertical veins. The herb is heavy, the texture is firm and hard, making it difficult to break, the fracture surface is slightly granular, soft and smooth, light brown, brown, or tan (chocolate-brown), and there are yellow triangular raised vascular bundle spots. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter and puckery, or sweet and puckery. The slice is a cross-cut or obliquely cut slice with a thickness of about 1 cm, which is often strung with a rope. The herb of a better grade has big stripes, is red, the texture is hard and farctate, the fracture surface is pulverulent (powdery), and does not show grooves and veins.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.stimulate the hematopoietic function and obviously increase the generation rate of granulocyte progenitor cells in mice; ②.promote the formation of immunoglobulin, enhance immune function.

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorating kidney Yang, replenishing essence and blood, relax bowel.It is indicated for kidney Yang deficiency, impotence due to deficiency of the kidney, spermatorrhea and prospermia (nocturnal emission and premature ejaculation), deficiency of essence and blood, flaccidity of waist and knees, flaccidity of legs and feet, asynodia and spermatorrhea (impotence and seminal emission), hematuria (urinating blood), physical deficiency and constipation, blood exhaustion and constipation, dryness of the intestine and constipation.

 Administration of Herba Cynomorii (Suǒ Yánɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Cynomorii (Suǒ Yánɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 5~10 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);or prepare to pill, powder, or prepare an ointment;③.Internally:water decoction, 5~15 grams;or prepared to pill,powder.




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