Introduction of Yi Zhi Ren:Sharpleaf Galangal Seed or Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sharpleaf Galangal Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Alpinia oxyphylla Miq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Sharpleaf Galangal Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae(Sharpleaf Galangal Seed).

yellow brownish herb seeds of Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae are piled together Pin Yin Name: Yì Zhì Rén, or Yì Zhì.
 English Name: Sharpleaf Galangal Seed.
 Latin Name: Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae.
 Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae is the dried ripe seed of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq., used to warm the spleen and kidney for the treatment of (1).chronic diarrhea with cold and pain in the abdomen, and (2).enuresis, frequent micturition, and seminal emission. The herb is commonly known as Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae, Sharpleaf Galangal Seed, Yì Zhì Rén.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Sharpleaf Galangal Fruit (Yi Zhi Ren) as the fruit of the Zingiberaceae family plant species (1).Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. It is a plant of the Alpinia genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) of the Scitamineae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.

 fruiting plant of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq with green fruits growing on stems Botanical description: The plant, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) and Alpinia Roxb genus, it is commonly known as Yì Zhì (means benefit wisdom). A perennial cespitose herb, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters high. Petioles are short; stems are thick; rhizomes are short, 3~5 cm long.

 Leaf blades are lanceolate, 20–35 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, apex is caudate acuminate, base is broadly cuneate, the margin has deciduous setulae (setiform), its residual traces are dentelated, both surfaces are glabrous; paraphyll (ligule) is membranous, 2-lobed; 1~2 cm long, a few reach to 3 cm long, rarely longer, covered with hazel (pale brownish) pilose.

 flowering plants of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq with pink flower spike grow in woods Racemes are apical, 8-15 cm long, are wrapped and hidden inside shealthed phyllary; inflorescence axis is covered with very short pubescence; small pedicels are 1-2 mm long; bracts are membraneous, brownish; the calyx is tubiform (tubular), about 1.2 cm long, front end is shallowly 3-dentate lobed, one side is deeply dehiscent, outside is covered with pubescence; corolla tube is the nearly equal length as calyx tube, 3 lobes, oblong, about 1.8 cm long, one lobe superior is slightly bigger, the front end is slightly pocket-shaped, white, outside is covered with pubescence; labellums (flabs) are obovate, about 2 cm long, pink, and has red stripes (striations), edge of the front end is crisped; lateral staminode is conical, about 2 mm long; 1 stamen, filaments are flat, linear (filate), about 1.2 cm long, anthers are about 6-7 mm long, the front end of septum has circular comb-shape appendages; ovary is inferior, densely covered with fluff (tomentose).

 brownish dried herb seeds of Sharpleaf Galangal Seed Capsularfruits are spherical (globular) or elliptical shape when they are fresh, turn fusiform (spindle-shaped) when they are dried, pericarp has conspicuous vertical vascular lines, 1.2~2 cm long, about 1 cm in diameter, indehiscent, turn yellowish green or creamy yellow when the fruits are mature. Many seeds, seeds are in irregular oblate form (flat circular shape), covered with a faint yellow aril. Its flowering period is from February to April, and the fruiting period is from May to August.

 flowering plant of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq with small white flower spikes grows in sunny field Ecological Environment: The plant, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq grows at a dankish place in a forest or is cultivated. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang River area, and Hainan of China, in recent years, it is also cultivated in Yunnan, etc.

 Growth characteristics: The plant, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq., prefers a warm and moist climate, the average annual temperature of its main producing region is 24~25 °C (Celsius, or 73.4~77 degrees Fahrenheit), and the monthly average temperature is 18~30 °C (Celsius, or 64.4~86 degrees Fahrenheit), temperature in the flowering period is 24~26 °C (Celsius, or 73.4~78.8 degrees Fahrenheit), yearly precipitation (annual rainfall) is over 1,800~2,000 mm. The plant likes a half-shaded environment, general shade level is 40%–50%, and it should keep relative humidity (RH) above 80%. But the plant can grow in dankish places without shade too. It is appropriate to choose a field with loose, fertile, and subacid sandy loam or loam for cultivation, and humus-rich sylvestre soil (forest soil) is optimal.

 light yellow brownish seed kernels of Sharpleaf Galangal Seed are piled together Characters of herbs: The dried fruit is fusiform (spindle-shaped) or elliptical shape, both ends are acuminate, 1.2~2 cm long, or 1.5~2 cm long, and the diameter is 1~1.2 cm or 1~1.3 cm. The surface is gray, reddish-brown to taupe (grayish brown), has 13~18 or 13~20 uneven vertical intermittent protuberant lines, there are perianth residues at the front end, and a remained carpopodium (fruit stalk) or fruit stalk trace at the base. The pericarp is thin and slightly tough, slightly appressed to the seed. The seed mass has a hazel (pale brown) septum and is separated into 3 cells, with 6–11 seeds in each cell. Seeds are irregularly polyhedron, slightly blunt, about 3–4 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness, the surface is taupe (grayish brown) or sallow (grayish yellow), and has faint yellow (pale yellow) membranous aril outside. The hilum is located in the center of the ventral surface, slightly concave, and there is a groove-shaped raphe growing from the hilum to the junction of the dorsal surface. After being broken, the inside is white and mealiness. The herb has a special aromatic fragrance, it tastes spicy and slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade has big and full grains and a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.cardiotonic effect; ②.calcium antagonistic activity on the rabbit aorta; ③.anti-gastric damage effect; ④.inhibiting prostagland; ⑤.increase the white blood cell count in the peripheral blood of mice.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warming the kidney, controlling nocturnal emission, stopping polyuria, warming the spleen relieving diarrhea and collecting saliva, consolidate Qi, stopping seminal emission, etc. It is indicated for enuresis with renal asthenia, frequent urination, spermatorrhea and white tubidity, spermatorrhea, deficient cold of spleen and stomach, spleen coldness and diarrhea, cold pain in abdomen, abdominal pain due to cold pathogen, emesia (vomiting), syncope due to pathogenic cold and vomiting diarrhea (vomiting and diarrhea due to pathogenic cold syncope), diarrhea and loose bowels, profuse spittle, dripping urine, kidney deficiency and enuresis, frequent micturition, frequent urination at night. 

 Administration of Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae (Yì Zhì Rén): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Alpiniae Oxyphyllae (Yì Zhì Rén)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 3~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~9 grams;or prepared to pill, powder.




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