Introduction of Sang Shen:Mulberry Fruit or Fructus Mori.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Mulberry Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Morus alba L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Mulberry Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Mori(Mulberry Fruit).

Fructus Mori:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sānɡ Shēn.
 English Name: Mulberry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Mori.
 Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes sweet, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Mori is the dried fruit-spike of Morus alba L., used (1).to replenish Yin and nourish the blood for the treatment of dizziness, tinnitus, blurred vision in cases of deficiency of Yin and blood, and (2).to promote fluid production for relieving dipsosis in cases of diabetes. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Mori, Mulberry Fruit, Sānɡ Shēn.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Mori(Mulberry Fruit) as the dry ripe fruit of the Moraceae family plant species (1). Morus alba L. It is a plant of the Morus Linn genus, the Moraceae family(mulberry family) of the Urticales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Morus alba L.

 Morus alba L.:mulberry trees Botanical description: The Morus alba L., is a plant of the Moraceae family(mulberry family) and Morus genus, it is commonly known as "Mulberry Tree" or "White Mulberry", or "Sānɡ", or "Sānɡ Shù", deciduous shrubs or small trees, it grows up to 3~15 meters high. The bark is brownish-brown, branches are gray or gray-yellow, sparsely sparse, shallowly longitudinally divided, slightly pilose when tender.

 Leaves are alternate, ovate to broadly ovate, 6~15 cm long and 4~12 cm wide. Tip or blunt, the base is round or near heart-shaped, coarse teeth on the edge, the upper part is glabrous, shiny, green below, veins are with sparse hairs, hairy veins; petiole length is 1~2.5 cm. Dioecious, the inflorescence is axillary; the male inflorescence is caducous; the female inflorescence length is 1~2 cm, style is not obvious or no, 2 stigmas.

 Morus alba L.:growing mulberry leaves The leaves are oval, broadly ovate, and heart-shaped. They are about 15 cm long, about 10 cm wide, and about 4 cm in length. The base of the leaf blade is heart-shaped, slightly apical at the apex, serrated at its edge, and densely covered with white pilose leaves. Old thick yellow-green leaves. The young leaves are thin and dark green. Crisp and brittle, grip the hands. It is light and slightly bitter. For herbal use purpose, it is generally good to collect after the frost. The poly fruit (mulberry) is dark purple, red, or milky when cooked. Its flowering period is from April to May and fruiting from June to July.

 Morus alba L.:growing mulberry leaves Ecological Environment: The Morus alba L., grows in the forest edge, thickets, or sparse forest, also found in the hillside meadow or meadow, bush wood, sandy land. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed from north to south areas of China, mostly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, planted in most provinces, and large output in the southern silkworm breeding area. The species was native to northern China, and the cultivation of white mulberry for silkworms began since over four thousand years ago in ancient China, it is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere including USA (the United States of America), Mexico, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Argentina, etc.

 mulberry leaves and silkworm Growth characteristics: The Morus alba L., grows well in the environment of light, climate, soil adaptability are strong. Cold-resistant, resistant to -40 °C (Celsius, or -40 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature, drought-resistant, but also in a warm and humid environment, favor the deep loose fertile soil, resistant to mild saline (0.2%), wind, smoke, and toxic gas. The roots are well-developed, grow fast, have strong sprouting power, are pruning-resistant, and have a long lifespan, generally up to several hundred years, and individual lifespan is up to several thousand years.

 Mulberry Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is a collective fruit, which is made up of many small achenes. The dried cluster is oblong oval, 1~2 cm long, and 6~10 mm in diameter. The base is petiolate, the fruit stalk is 1~1.5 cm long. The surface is purple-red or purple-black, with a short peduncle. The herb is a collective fruit, the cluster is made up of 30~60 achenes. Achenes are oval, slightly flat, 2~5 mm long, with 4 membranous bracts. The endosperm is white. It is oily and rich in sugar. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sour and sweet. The herb of better grade has big and fleshy grain, purple, and high sugar content.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.enhancing immune function; ②.reducing the activity of red blood cell Na,-K, -ATPase.

 Medicinal efficacy: Nourishing Yin and replenishing blood, promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, moisturizing dryness syndrome, moisten intestines, invigorate the liver, tonifying the kidney, wind-extinguishing (relieve dizziness, high fever, infantile convulsions, epilepsy, etc.). It is indicated for deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin, dizziness and dazzled due to deficiency of liver and kidney or deficiency of blood and essence, dizziness and tinnitus (vertigo, ringing in ears), palpitation and insomnia (palpitation, lose sleep), insomnia and dreaminess (lose sleep, much dream), premature greying hair, impairment of bodyfluid and thirst, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat, consumptive thirst), dryness of the intestine and constipation, blurred vision (cloudy vision), aching of waist and tinnitus, tinnitus (ringing in ears), scrofula (lymphoid tuberculosis), inflexibility of joints, etc.  

 Administration of Fructus Mori (Sānɡ Shēn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Mori (Sānɡ Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams);prepare an ointment, infusing in wine, or take rawly. Externally:wash with infusion; ③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, prepare an ointment, infusing in wine, or take rawly. Externally:wash with infusion.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Mori should not be used in conditions diarrhea due to deficiency cold in spleen and stomach.

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