Introduction of Mai Dong:Dwarf Lilyturf Root or Radix Ophiopogonis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dwarf Lilyturf Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.) Ker-Gawl., ②.Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Dwarf Lilyturf Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Ophiopogonis(Dwarf Lilyturf Root).

Radix Ophiopogonis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Mài Dōnɡ, or Mài Mén Dōnɡ.
 English Name: Dwarf Lilyturf Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Ophiopogonis.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold in nature, tastes sweet, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Ophiopogonis is the dried tuberous root of Ophiopogon japonicus(Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., used (1).to replenish and promote fluid production for the treatment of dipsosis, dry throat, dry cough, and bloody sputum in cases of acute febrile diseases and Yin deficiency of the lung and stomach, and (2).to calm the mind for the treatment of fidgetiness and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Ophiopogonis, Dwarf Lilyturf Root, Mài Dōnɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Dwarf Lilyturf Tuber(Mai Meng Dong) as the tuber of the Liliaceae family plant species:(1). Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.) Ker-Gawl., or (2). Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl. They are plant species of the Ophiopogon KerGawl genus, the Liliaceae family (lily family) of the Liliales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.)Ker-Gawl.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:flowering plants Botanical description: The Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.)Ker-Gawl., is a plant of the Liliaceae family (lily family) and Ophiopogon(lilyturf) genus, some latest classification system classified the herb into Asparagaceae family (asparagus family), it is commonly known as "Dwarf Lilyturf", or "Mài Dōnɡ" or "Mài Mén Dōnɡ". Perennial herb, it grows up to 12~40 cm high, fibrous root often formed in the middle or apex is swollen. Leaves are connate; petiole is sheathlike, the margin is membranous; the blade is narrowly linear, basal leaves are with many fibrous old leaves, leaf length is 15~40 cm, width 1.5~4 mm, apex is pointed or acuminate, base is greenish-white and slightly enlarged. Scapes are shorter than leaves, 7~15 cm long, spicate racemes are racemble, terminal, 3~8 cm long, bracteoles are membranous, 1~3 flowers per bracts axillary; pedicels are 3~4 mm long, jointly located at mid-fold or nearly central; flowers are small, lavender, slightly drooping, 6 perianth segments, not spreading, lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, 6 stamens, anthers are triangular-lanceolate; Style is about 4 mm, broad base, slightly conical. Berry is spherical, diameter is 5~7 mm, early green, dark blue after ripening. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:fresh roots The root is thicker, often swollen into the middle or near the end of the oval or spindle-shaped small roots; small root length is 1~1.5 cm, or longer, 5~10 mm wide, light brown; underground walking stems are slender, diameter is 1~2 mm, the membranous sheath on the day. The stems are very short, leaf base to generate plexus, leafy, 10~50 cm long, a few is longer, 1.5~3.5 mm wide, with 3~7 veins, edges are serrulate.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:flowering plants Scapes are 6~27 cm long, usually much shorter than leaves, racemes are 2~5 cm long, sometimes longer, with several to ten flowers; flowers are solitary or paired bracteoles lanceolate, apex is acuminate, the lowermost length is up to 7~8 mm; pedicel is 3~4 mm long, the joints are located in the middle of the middle or above; perianth often sag and Not spreading, lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, white or lavender; anthers are triangular-lanceolate, 2.5~3 mm long; style 4 mm, coarser, 1 mm wide, base broadly attenuate upwardly. Seeds are spherical, 7~8 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:flowering plants Therefore, plant body changes greatly, for example, densely foliar plexus, leaf width 4 and sometimes narrowly different significantly; but its flower structure changes little, especially the perianth in the flower bloom is only slightly open, style is basal wide, generally slightly thicker and shorter, slightly conical and other traits are consistent, is to identify the main features of this species.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:flowers Ecological Environment: The Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.) Ker-Gawl., grows at the area with an altitude below 2,000 meters, on the slopes of the grass, in the forest, or beside the stream. Geographical distribution: This species is native to China and is mainly distributed and cultivated in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest, northwest area, Taiwan, and other areas of China, it is also cultivated in big quantity in southwest.

 Ophiopogon japonicus L.f.Ker-Gawl.:purple fruits Growth characteristics: The Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.) Ker-Gawl., prefers warm and humid, abundant rainfall climate conditions, grows in 5~30 °C (Celsius, or 41~86 degrees Fahrenheit), the optimum growth temperature is 15~25 °C (Celsius, or 59~77 degrees Fahrenheit), stop growing at a temperature below 0 °C (Celsius, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit) or above 35 °C (Celsius, or 95 degrees Fahrenheit), demand enough water during growth and require adequate light, especially in the blooming period of roots, sufficient light to promote the expansion of roots.

 Dwarf Lilyturf plant and root Dwarf Mondo Grass, Ophiopogon japonicus, is an ornamental grass that grows to 4" in height and is closely related to the liriope. It is also known as Dwarf Lilyturf, Mondo Grass Dwarf, and Monkey Grass. This perennial evergreen grows in average, medium wet, well-drained soil in part shade to full shade. It spreads by underground stems or tubers. This plant is widely used in rock gardens, seashore plantings, borders, and groundcovers. It is intolerant of the full sun.

 Dwarf Mondo Grass is a beautiful clumping dark grass that typically grows anywhere from four to six inches tall; the variety Nana grows just three-inches tall. Ornamental grass is ideal for low traffic plantings, rather than a grass you might use to create a lawn, Dwarf Mondo is also known as Dwarf Lilyturf, Mondo Grass Dwarf, and Monkey Grass.

 Lilyturf root photo Mondo Grass is native only to China, is not a grass but a lily. This perennial evergreen grows in dense, slowly spreading clumps, preferring average, medium wet, well-drained soil in filtered sun to full shade, it is intolerant of full sun. It spreads by underground stems or tubers and can be easily propagated by division.

 Dwarf Mondo is hardy and will tolerate extremely dry conditions like those seen in Davis and is still frost tolerant to -15 °C (Celsius, or 5 degrees Fahrenheit). The leaves of Dwarf Mondo are somewhat finer than seen in other species and any blooms are hidden. Giant Mondo (O. jaburan) has longer, broader leaves, and the flowering stems can be up to 60 cm (2') long, it is more clump-forming, tolerates only light frosts, and has a weeping habit. Black Mondo (O. planiscapus "Nigrescens") has purple-black strap-like leaves.

 Dwarf Lilyturf Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root tuber is spindle-shaped, with slightly pointed ends, 1.5~3.5 cm in length, the diameter of the middle part is 3~7 mm. The surface is khaki or yellowish-white, with deep irregular fine longitudinal lines, and sometimes one end has a small stele (central cylinder) exposed. The texture of the herb is soft and flexible, the fracture surface is off-white or yellowish-white, translucent, and the stele is small, which can be pulled out when fresh. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly sweet and puckery, slightly sticky when chewed. The herb of better grade is big, yellowish-white, translucent, the texture of the herb is soft and sticky when chewed.

(2).Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl.

 Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl., is a plant of the Liliaceae family (lily family) and Ophiopogon(lilyturf) genus, some latest classification system classified the herb into Asparagaceae family (asparagus family), it is commonly known as "Ophiopogon", or "Yan Jie Cao". Perennial herb, it grows up to 15~40 cm high. Underground with slender stolons, the section on the membranous bracts: fibrous roots often swollen into some fibrous roots. Leaves are tufted, narrowly linear, long, 15~40 cm, 1~4 mm wide, the apex is obtuse or pointed, base is narrowed, the petiole is sheathlike, with membranes on both sides. Flowers stem length is 6.5~14 cm; racemes are terminal; bracts are membranous, each bract axillary 1 to 3 flowers; flowers are pale purple, even white, small, slightly drooping; perianth 6, to carry out, 6 oval stamens, filaments are inconspicuous, shorter than anthers, anthers apex is pointed; ovaries are semi-inferior, 3-locule. Berry is globose, dark green, or dark blue when mature, 5~7 mm in diameter. It is flowering in July, fruiting in November.

 Morphology is similar to the Ophiopogon japonicus(L.f.)Ker-Gawl., the main difference is: Scape is usually slightly shorter than in or near equiaxed; perianth sheet at flowering bloom; style is slender, cylindrical, the base is not broad.

 Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl.:flowering plants Ecological Environment: The Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl., grows on the slopes, damp valleys, ditch edge, shrubs, or forest, at the area with an altitude of 600~3,400 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed or is cultivated in most provinces of China. Wild species is distributed in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the west reaches area of the Zhujiang river area, southwest, northwest, south of Qinling mountain, west area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl.:blue flowers Ornamental and garden use: The Ophiopogon bodinieri Levl., growing strong, strong tolerance, the plant is low, developed a root system, covering faster, is a good ground cover plants can be planted in the scenic wetlands and wetlands at the lake as the ground cover. Evergreen leaf color throughout the year, flower kiosks upright, elegant color, can be used as potted foliage plants.

 Characters of herbs: The root tuber is spindle-shaped, with a length of 0.8~2 cm and a diameter of 2~4 mm in the middle. There are fine longitudinal lines on the surface. The fracture surface is yellow-white, the stele is small. The herb has a mild taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.raise or lower blood sugar level; ②.antimicrobial effect (in vitro has certain level inhibition of Staphylococcus albus, Escherichia coli, etc.); ③.calming effect; ④.enhance the capacity of the experimental hypoxia tolerance in mice; ⑤.increasing the weight of spleen; ⑥.against the white blood cells dropping in mice caused by cyclophosphamide and 60 cor exposure; ⑦.promote the formation of serum hemolysin; ⑧.enhance cellular immune function; ⑨.reduce the body hydroxyproline; ⑩.anti-aging; ⑾.anti-fatigue effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Nourish Yin and promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, nourish Yin and moistening the lung, clearing away the heart-fire and relieving restlessness, moistening the lung and clear away the heart-fire, reinforcing the stomach and promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid. It is indicated for dryness of lung and dry cough, Yin deficiency and tuberculosis cough, hematemesis (spitting blood), hemoptysis (coughing up blood), blood heat and epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), atrophic lung disease, abscess of lung, pharyngitis(throat obstruction, inflammation of the fauces and pharynx), pharyngalgia, dry pharynx and dry mouth, sore throat, febrile disease and impairment of fluid, impairment of fluid and thirst, consumptive disease and dysphoria with smothery sensation, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat and consumptive thirst), wasting thirst, vexation and insomnia (upset, lose sleep), constipation due to intestinal dryness, etc. 

 Administration of Radix Ophiopogonis (Mài Dōnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Ophiopogonis (Mài Dōnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian (about 6~12 grams);or prepare to pill, powder; ③.or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.

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