Introduction of Yu Zhu:Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome or Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati(Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome).

Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati:sliced herb Pin Yin Name: Yù Zhú.
 English Name: Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes sweet, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati is the steamed and dried rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum(Will.) Druce, used to nourish Yin and promote fluid production for the treatment of disposis, dry throat and dry cough in cases of febrile diseases and diabetes. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati, Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome, Yù Zhú.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati (Yu Zhu) as the dry rhizome of the Liliaceae family plant (1). Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. It is a plant of the Polygonatum Mill. Genus, the Liliaceae family (lily family) of the Liliflorae order. Some latest classification system classified it to the Asparagaceae family (asparagus family) and Polygonatum Genus. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce.


 Polygonatum odoratum Mill.Druce.:flowering plants Botanical description: The plant, Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce is a plant of the Liliaceae (or Asparagaceae) family and Polygonatum genus, it is also known as Polygonatum Officinale All., Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce var.pluriflorum (Miq.) Ohwi., commonly known as Fragrant Solomonseal, or Yù Zhú. A perennial herb. The rhizomes are amphitropous and succulent, yellowish-white, and densely have many fibrous roots. The stem is single and grows up to 20–60 cm high. It has 7~12 leaves. Leaves are alternate and sessile; leaf blades are elliptic to ovate-oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~3 cm wide, the apex is pointed, the base is cuneate (wedge-shaped), the upper surface is green, the under surface is ash gray (grayish-white); leaf veins are protuberant, smooth or papillary.

 Polygonatum odoratum Mill.Druce.:flowers Flowers are axillary, usually 1–3 flowers grow in tufts (tufty), peduncles are 1~1.5 cm long, ebracteate or have linear-lanceolate bracts; the perianth is terete (tube-shape), overall length is 13~20 mm, olivine (yellowish-green) to white, apex is 6-lobed, the lobes are oval (egg-shaped), about 3 mm long, often greenish; 6 stamens, grow and are inserted in the middle part of the perianth tube, filaments are filiform (threadlike), nearly smooth to papillary; the ovary is 3~4 mm long, styles are 10~14 mm long. Berries are spherical (globular), 7~10 mm in diameter, and turn blue-black at maturity. Its flowering period is from April to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Polygonatum odoratum Mill.Druce.:flowering plants Ecological Environment: The plant, Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce., grows in forests and dankish places on hillsides or mountain slopes, and widely grows in a cool, moist, water-free wild forest or shrub, in areas at altitudes of 500–3,000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in north-central and northwest to southwest areas of China, mainly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, Taiwan, and other areas of China. This species is widely distributed in temperate regions of the Asia-Europe continent.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and moist climate, like a dankish environment, with cold resistance, it can be cultivated in mountainous and plain areas. It is appropriate to choose a field with a deep upper soil layer, fertile soil, good drainage, and slightly acidic sandy loam for cultivation. It is not appropriate to choose clay with extremely high humidity for cultivation. Should avoid continuous cropping.

 Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome:dried herbFragrant Solomonseal Rhizome:fresh rhizome Characters of herbs: The rhizome of the herb is cylindrical, slightly flat, and sometimes ramifies, with a length of 4~18 cm or 10~20 cm, and the diameter is 0.7~2 cm or 0.3~1.6 cm, joints and nodes are distinct, the internode length is 1~15 mm, there are several circular disc-shaped (plate-shaped) stem marks in the middle or terminal part of the rhizome, 0.5~1 cm in diameter, sometimes residual scale leaves are visible, and fibrous root marks are dotted. The surface is yellowish-white to khaki and has fine vertical wrinkles. The texture of the herb is pliable and tough, sometimes dry and crisp, and easily broken, the fracture surface is yellow-white and granular, and there are scattered vascular bundle spots that are visible on the fracture surface. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sweet, and is glutinous.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.short hypotensive activity; ②.cardiotonic effect; ③.inhibit the elevation of blood sugar levels; ④.improve the function of sugar tolerance; ⑤.vasodilation effect; ⑥.prevent rising of triglyceride level; ⑦.alleviate the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in experiment animal; ⑧.immune enhancement function; ⑨.enhance the phagocytosis and humoral immunity; ⑩.excite then inhibit smooth muscle; ⑾.improve animal anti-hypoxia effect, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Nourishing yin to moisten dryness, nourishing yin and moisturizing the lung (replenishing vital essence to nourish the lung), relieving restlessness, nourishing the stomach to improve the production of body fluid, help produce saliva and slake thirst. It is indicated for Yin injury of the lung and stomach, Yin injury of pyrexia (Yin injury of febrile disease), irritating dry cough (cough caused by dryness), cough caused by dryness-heat, over-strained cough, cough and polydipsia, dry pharynx and thirst, dry pharynx and thirst of Yin injury due to febrile disease, Yin deficiency and exogenous affection, dizziness and vertigo, deficient fever (fever of consumptive disease), endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat, consumptive thirst), polyorexia (polypepsia and easy to feel hungery), frequent urination, clonic pain of muscle and tendons, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati (Yù Zhú): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati (Yù Zhú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams);prepare ointment, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~12 grams;prepare ointment, infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, mash fresh herb and apply stick;or prepare ointment and smear apply. Better use raw herb for Yin deficiency with heat, better use prepared herb for pyrexia not severe.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati should not be prepared or used with salt brine.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Yu Zhu:Fragrant Solomonseal Rhizome or Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati.

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