Introduction of Calendula:Potmarigold Calendula or Garden marigold.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Calendula, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Calendula officinalis L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Calendula, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Calendula(Potmarigold Calendula).

dry flower of marigold English Name: Calendula.
 Latin Name: Calendula officinalis L.
 Common Names: Garden marigold, pot marigold, Potmarigold Calendula, tagetes erecta, Mary Bud, Mary Gowles, etc.
 Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes bitter.

 Brief introduction: Calendula is also known as Potmarigold Calendula, garden marigold is its popular name, it is native to Southern Europe, and today it grows in gardens and parks throughout the world. Europeans and Americans like to cut out the stems of marigolds for viewing in bottles. Marigold is the flower that informs the Virgin Mary of pregnancy, its flower language is relief and charity.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Calendula as the dried flower tops of the species (1). Calendula officinalis L. It is a plant species of the Calendula genus, the Asteraceae family (composite, daisy family). The dried flower tops, and other plant parts, are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Calendula officinalis L.

 Calendula officinalis:growing marigold plant and flower Botanical description: Calendula officinalis is an annual or biennial herb, it grows up to 30~60 cm tall, with short hairs on the whole plant. The stem is upright, with longitudinal ridges and branches at the upper part. Leaves are alternate; Lower leaves are spatulate, entire-edge; The upper leaves are oblong to oblong-obovate, 5~9 cm long and 1~2 cm wide, the apex is blunt or sharp, the base is slightly heart-shaped, slightly clasping the stem, and the edge is entire-edge or sparsely denticulate.

 Calendula officinalis:growing marigold plant and flower The flower heads are solitary at the ends of branches, 2.5~5 cm in diameter, pedunculate; Involucral bracts have 1-2 layers, bracts are linear, the apex is acuminate, the margin is membranous; the ligulate flower is yellow or orange, female, 1~2 layers, pregnant, tongue piece is entire-edge or apex 3-toothed; Tubular flower is bisexual, unfertilized, 5 lobes, style is indehiscent. Achenes are longer than bracts, hooked inward, with scales on the back and narrow wings on both sides; Hairless. Its flowering period is from April to July and fruiting from June to October.

 Calendula officinalis:marigold flowers Ecological environment: Calendula officinalis is native to Southern Europe and the Mediterranean coastal area, it has been cultivated in Europe for a long time. After the 18th century, it was introduced into the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China, and today it grows in gardens and parks throughout the world.

 Growth characteristics: Calendula officinalis prefers warmth and sunshine. It likes to grow in a mild and cool climate and is afraid of heat and cold. Sufficient light or slight shade is required, the soil requirements are not strict, loose soil with good drainage, the soil is fertile and moderate, and there is a certain drought resistance. The soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) should be kept at 6~7, so the plants can have many branches, and the flowers are big and dense.

 Calendula officinalis:marigold plant and flowers For the farmland planted with marigold, better choose the soil with deep, loose, and good drainage and air permeability. When the temperature starts to rise and the tillage layer thaws, use the heavy-duty harrow as soon as possible. Rake 20~25 cm deep to make the surface soil finely broken, and then press and flatten the surface of the soil. At the same time, according to the soil fertility, 10~15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer and 5~10 kg of phosphorus fertilizer should be applied per mu of basal soil, and organic fertilizer.

 Calendula officinalis:growing marigold shrubs Ornamental value: Europeans and Americans like to cut out the stems of marigolds for viewing in bottles. Marigold is the flower that informs the Virgin Mary of pregnancy, its flower language is relief and charity. In Normandy of France, marigold was used to add golden luster to cattle. According to legend, it also has the function of forecasting the weather: if the flowers bloom before 7 am, it must be sunny that day, otherwise, it will rain.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory action; ②.wound healing; ③.stimulating immune system and anti-ulcer; ④.lutein and its antioxidant effect; etc.

 Related studies found the herb has an anti-inflammatory action and identified it comes mainly from its triterpenoids, a related study proposed faradiol monoester is the most relevant anti-inflammatory component in the flowers, and its wound healing property was proved in lab animal studies, it significantly increased the presence of cells important to wound healing, its volatile oil, mucilage, resins, etc. have anti-virus and anti-bacteria effects, a related study found the herb calendula promotes the formation of granulation tissue which is an important step in re-epithelization and healing of wounds, it also increases glycoprotein, necleoprotein and collagen metabolism at wound sites, its promoting granulation effect was found by inducing new blood vessel formation in vitro; The herb also has immune system stimulating property and could be used for ulcer. There are other findings of the herb, such as the anti-hypotensive effect of marigold plant infusion, anti-lipid effect, and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the herb is identified related to its saponosides component, its components oleanolic acid glycosides from the above-ground part has an anti-viral effect against Vesicular stomatitis virus, its flower preparations were found has potent anti-HIV activity in a test; the herb is also found has a gastrointestinal effect, ease gastrointestinal problems by reducing spasms and stimulating the production of bile.

 lutein and age-related macular degeneration Marigold flower contains abundant amounts of an antioxidant compound called lutein, lutein is a yellow plant pigment in the carotenoid family, yellow and orange vegetables have only trace amounts of lutein, lutein is also found in spinach, kale, amaranth, red paprika, leeks, peas, romaine lettuce, collard, and mustard greens and certain flowers, large amounts are found in green vegetables like broccoli, collard greens, kale, and spinach. Lutein and zeaxanthin are two carotenoids primarily found in dark green leafy vegetables. Lutein and zeaxanthin make up the bulk of the pigments contained in your macula and yet the only way your body can get them is through diet. The yellow appearance and macula lutea are due to the dense concentration of lutein, studies have shown that people with AMD (age-related macular degeneration) have lower levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in their maculas; Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants, they protect the cells of the body from damage caused by free radicals. Lutein is the main carotenoid antioxidant identified with the lens of the eye and may play a role in the prevention of cataracts, lutein has been found helpful for maintaining optimum eye health whilst preventing macular degeneration, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts and night blindness, and has already been used widely in eyecare formulas, multivitamin formulas, and cosmetics for many years, lutein's antioxidant qualities may help promote healthy skin during sun exposure, the presence of lutein and other antioxidants in the skin is effective in protecting the cells from UVA damage, related studies proposed lutein may also inhibit cancer and tumor cells, eliminate blood-vessel clogging, protect lung health and especially for smokers, and studies from the National Institutes of Health of the USA (NIH of USA) found lutein also reduce the arthritis incidence of the knee and other joint tissues, etc.

 flowers of marigold Medicinal efficacy: Calendula was recognized as an antiseptic herb, it was used in medieval Europe for blemishes, bedsores, and skin infections. Today it is recommended by herbalists for inflamed or damaged skin, poorly healing wounds and ulcers, burns and sunburns, boils, rashes, bruises, chapped hands, infectious sores such as herpes zoster, varicose veins. Calendula tea is recommended to promote sweating and lower fever, painful stomach ulcers, menstrual cramping, calm gallbladder inflammation, damp stomach, and intestinal spasms. It is used in gargles and rinses for mouth and throat inflammation. In Europe, the herb calendula or marigold flowers are approved externally for inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, oral and pharyngeal mucosa, wounds and burns, poorly healing wounds, leg ulcers, to clean wounds, and acute and chronic skin inflammation. It is used in traditional folk medicine for varicosis, vascular disease wounds, inflammatory skin disease, anal eczema, proctitis, and conjunctivitis, also used in remedy for the treatment of sore, dry skin, bee stings, and frostbite; internally for gastrointestinal ulcers, constipation, worm infestation, and dysmenorrhea, as a diuretic and diaphoretic. In homeopath application, it was used for frostbite, burns to the skin, and poorly healing wounds, but the efficacy of the homeopathic uses has not been proved. Marigold herb preparations are used in folk medicine for circulation, ulcers, spasms, swelling of the glands, jaundice, wounds, eczema, etc.

 In TCM works, the herb calendula flower is recorded with functions of clear heat and detoxification, promoting blood circulation to restore menstrual flow, it is indicated for tympanitis (otitis media), irregular menses, etc.

 Administration of Calendula (Potmarigold Calendula): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Calendula (Potmarigold Calendula)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books: Tea is advised to pour 150 ml of hot water over 1 to 2 teaspoons of flower and strain after approximately 10 minutes. A mouthwash, gargle, and lotion are made of 1 to 2 teaspoons tincture per 250 ml to 500 ml of water, ointments are prepared in concentrations of 2~5 grams calendula per 100 grams ointment with a fatty base. In North America and Europe, for sore throat and inflammation, calendula powder 1~2 grams is added to 150 ml of water, or 1~2 grams of the flower is added to one cup of water, steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Tea prepared of 1~4 grams of flower in one cup of water and steep 10 to 15 minutes for peptic ulcer, three times daily; 2% to 5% ointment apply topically to the affected area for wound; for Homeopathic dosage is advised 5~10 drops, 1 tablet, or 5 to 10 globules 1 to 3 times daily or 1 ml injection solution sc twice-weekly. The flower and its preparation should be protected from light and moisture for storage, and could be stored for a maximum of 3 years. In TCM, the herb calendula flower is recommended internally as water decoction, 5~15 grams, externally proper amount, extract fresh juice and drop in ears.
 Lutein is recommended at different dosages for various purposes: the standard supplemental dose is 10 mg daily for prevention of macular degeneration, or a daily dietary intake of 5,921 mcg to more than 7,300 mcg for protection against various types of cancer;
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: No toxic reactions have been reported after centuries of use as a culinary and medicinal herb, but the plant can cause an allergic reaction if you are sensitive to this or other plants of the Asteraceae family, there is a low potential for sensitization after frequent skin contact with the herb. Some herbalists caution against using the herb during pregnancy.

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