Introduction of Calliopsis:Golden Coreopsis, Tick-seed, or Snow Chrysanthemum.
✵The article gives records of the herb Calliopsis, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Coreopsis tinctoria., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Calliopsis, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, other common uses, and administration guide.
English Name: Calliopsis.
Latin Name: Coreopsis tinctoria, or Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.
Common Names: Calliopsis, Garden Coreopsis, Golden Coreopsis, Goldenwave, plains coreopsis, Tick-seed, Snow Chrysanthemum, Calliopsis bicolor.
Property and flavor: the flower has a fragrant odor, it tastes sweet.
Brief introduction: Calliopsis is previously known as Calliopsis bicolor. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is an important traditional medicine in North America, Europe, and Asia for quite a long historical period, which has received great attention due to its health-benefiting activities, including disinfection, treatment of sexual infection, diarrhea, acute and chronic dysentery, red-eye swelling as well as pain, heat, thirst, hypertension, palpitation, gastrointestinal discomfort, and loss of appetite.
There are about 100 species in the genus Coreopsis which are distributed in America, south of Africa, and the Hawaiian Islands, and 7 species are distributed in China. The inflorescences of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is the Uigur herb 'Snow chrysanthemum' which is named 'Shemuju' with the effects of heat-cleaning, detoxicating, dampness-dissipating, and dysentery-curing. The chemical constituents from Coreopsis plants mainly contain flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, and sterols, which show anti-inflammatory activities in modern pharmaceutical research.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Calliopsis as the flower of the species (1).Coreopsis tinctoria. It is a plant species of the Coreopsis genus, the Asteraceae family (composite, daisy family). The flower is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
Botanical description: Coreopsis tinctoria is an annual herb, glabrous, the plant grows up to 30~100 cm high, it grows up to about 60~120 cm high and 45 cm wide in its native region of the western USA(the United States of America). Stems are upright and branched at the top. Leaves are opposite, lower and middle leaves are with a long stalk, secondary pinnatifid, lobes are linear or linear-lanceolate, entire-margined; upper leaves are sessile or descending into wing-like stalks, linear.
The inflorescences are numerous, with slender peduncles, 2~4 cm in diameter, arranged in corymbs or sparse panicles. The involucre is hemispherical, short outer layer, about 3 mm long, the inner layer is ovate-oblong, 5~6 mm long, and the apex is pointed. Ligulate flower is yellow, tongue piece is obovate, 8~15 mm long, tubular flowers are reddish brown, narrowly bell-shaped. The flower looks like yellow rays with a reddish-brown center disk. Achenes are oblong or fusiform, 2.5~3 mm long, with smooth or nodular protrusions on both sides and 2 fine awns at the top. The flowering period is from May to September, the late spring to fall period, and the fruiting period is from August to October.
Coreopsis tinctoria, commonly called plains coreopsis, garden coreopsis, golden tickseed, or calliopsis, this species is synonymous with and formerly known as Calliopsis bicolor.There are three subspecies: Coreopsis tinctoria f. atropurpurea, Coreopsis tinctoria f. tinctoria, Coreopsis tinctoria var. imminuata.
Ecological environment: Coreopsis tinctoria is an ornamental plant native to the western USA (west of the Mississippi River), it is cultivated in gardens and has over time escaped from gardens and naturalized throughout most of the eastern USA to the Atlantic Ocean; it is introduced and cultivated on a certain scale in parts of Xinjiang and Yunnan of China, and can grow in the snow-covered alpine area of Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang, which latitude is more than 3,000 meters above sea level.
Growth characteristics: In its native area in Missouri, Coreopsis tinctoria is typically found in rocky glades, sandy ground, and along roadsides, along railroad tracks. Coreopsis tinctoria is easily grown in dry to medium moisture, well-drained soil in full sun. The plant tolerates light shade, it grows well in poor sandy or rocky soils. Tolerant to heat, humidity, and some drought. The plant is a nectar source for pollinators.
Characters of herbs: The snow chrysanthemum grown at high altitudes area has a large temperature difference between day and night, high sugar content, tight buds, and elastic petals. The color of the petals is also brighter, golden yellow, and the petals are brittle after drying. The high-altitude snow chrysanthemum grows in a very harsh environment, where the air is dry, and it only needs to be dried for a period of time to become dry flowers, and the petals of these natural dried flowers of origin are brittle (the flower petals that are picked and naturally dried in shade are not so brittle), it is easy to be crushed or shattered during transportation, and the petals of snow chrysanthemum are a little scattered, which is normal. The high-altitude snow chrysanthemum is brewed, and the tea color is clear and crimson red. It can be brewed more than 4~5 times and the soup color remains the same; the dried flowers have a light medicinal fragrance, and the brewed tea taste is lightly fragrant, and sweet.
How to choose snow chrysanthemum? There are two kinds of snow chrysanthemums on the market: one is artificially planted in a high-altitude area, and the other is artificially planted in a plain area.
Snow chrysanthemum from high-altitude areas smells like herbal medicine; snow chrysanthemum from the plain area does not have such an odor.
The appearance of wild snow chrysanthemum from high altitude areas has dark red spherical stamens, with darker stamens. Due to the harsh growth environment, the petals are few and incomplete or have no petals, the petals are golden yellow, the flower-shaped particles are small, and the appearance is unsightly. The snow chrysanthemum in the plain area grows in a comfortable environment, the buds are large, and the petals are relatively complete, and the color of the stamens is lighter.
The dried snow chrysanthemum flowers grown at high altitudes in the authentic origin have a faint medicinal fragrance; the dried snow chrysanthemum flowers which grow at low altitudes in plain area smell more pungent, or has a strong sweetness smell after processing, which are not authentic odor.
The soup of snow chrysanthemum from high altitude areas is crimson red, with a tangy medicinal taste and sweet taste; the soup of snow chrysanthemum from the plain area is dark yellow, not crimson red, has no medicinal flavor, and tastes sour and bitter.
So, better choose snow chrysanthemum grow in high altitude mountain area, and not choose snow chrysanthemum grow in plain area: snow chrysanthemum planted at low altitudes in the plain area has a higher growth environment temperature, fluffy buds, dark red petals, no luster, larger flower shape, looser shape, and soft. After artificial drying, most of the petals are often very complete. After brewing the snow chrysanthemum planted at low altitude plain area, the soup color is cloudy and unclear, or the color is dark, or the color is light yellow. After brewing, the tea color is opaque and not crimson. Dried flowers smell more pungent, or some have a strong sweetness smell after processing, and the taste is bitter and puckery. The first two brewing is very sweet, and then there is no taste after the second brewing.
Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-aging and neuroprotective Effect; ②.anti-infection and treatment of chronic metabolic disease; ③.hypoglycemic effect; ④.hypolipidemic effect; ⑤.antihypertensive effect; ⑥.antioxidant effect; ⑦.relieve acute pancreatitis; ⑧.hepatoprotective effect and liver protection effect, cardio-protective effects. ⑨.anti-microbial function, ⑩.antitumor Effect,etc.
Anti-aging: studies found that Calliopsis flower flavonoids have the functions of anti-aging, promoting body metabolism, and improving body immunity.
Neuroprotective Effect: studies found that extract from Coreopsis tinctoria could improve the learning and memory impairment of model mice, improve the learning and memory impairment of d-galactose-induced aging mice, and showed neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model.
Anti-infection and treatment of chronic metabolic disease: studies found the herb Calliopsis flower has anti-infection and treatment of chronic metabolic disease, this bioactivities could be attributed to its flavonoids.
Hypoglycemic effect: Coreopsis tinctoria is a potential hypoglycemic substance and may reduce blood glucose by regulating gut microbiota, and lowering the level of hemoglobin A1c (hemoglobin A1C, or HbA1C test is a blood test that shows what your average blood sugar or glucose level was over the past two to three months).
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment: Coreopsis tinctoria capitula (CTC) of the Compositae family has been used traditionally to treat various diseases in China, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Diabetic kidney disease: ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt has protective effects in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.
Hypolipidemic effect: Calliopsis flower extract has a better hypolipidemic effect, a related study found Coreopsis tinctoria can modulate blood lipid metabolism with an improvement of liver function.
Antihypertensive effect: Calliopsis flower has a certain antihypertensive effect. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt flower bud is widely used as a herbal tea amd folk medicine by local Uyghur people in Xinjiang of China to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and diarrhea.
Antioxidant effect: Calliopsis flower extract had resistance to hydroxyl radicals(·OH), and superoxide ion free radicals. A study on six kinds of Juhua Tea found that Coreopsis tinctoria extract possessed stronger antioxidant activity than the other five.
Relieve acute pancreatitis: Flavonoid C1 from Coreopsis tinctoria was protective in experimental acute pancreatitis.
Hepatoprotective effect, Liver protection effect: Coreopsis tinctoria flowers have protective effects on liver injury, the flower bud is a traditional remedy for the management of various diseases, including hepatitis.
Cardio-protective effects: studies found preparations of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. exerts cardio-protective effects against MIRI via anti-oxidant (myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury), anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities, its flavonoid and phenolic compounds explain its preventive efficacy in cardiovascular diseases.
Anti-microbial function: studies found Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt flower inhibits Chromobacterium violaceum and the compound responsible for inhibition is its component Okanin, its component maritimetin has a strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium, S. aureus.
Antitumor Effect: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt has an antitumor activity on lung cancer, the herb is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. It has important pharmacological effects such as lowering blood lipids, regulating blood glucose, and anti-tumor effects.
Medicinal efficacy: Traditionally, Amerindians used the root tea for diarrhea and as an emetic. Flowers boiled in water are used as tea to strengthen the blood and for internal pains and bleeding. It was also used as a source of yellow and red dyes. Coreopsis tinctoria is traditionally used in diarrhea, infection, and chronic metabolic diseases. From 1954 to now, more than 120 chemical constituents have been identified from Coreopsis tinctoria, such as flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polysaccharides, phenylpropanoids, and volatile oils. Flavonoids are the major bioactive components in Coreopsis tinctoria. Current research has shown that its extracts and compounds possess diverse biological and pharmacological activities such as anti-diabetes, anti-cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, protective effects on organs, neuroprotective effects, antimicrobial, and antineoplastic.
Beauty Effect: Coreopsis tinctoria flower has some good functions for beauty and skin care, it eliminate freckles and remove acne, has a whitening and beauty effect, help moisturizing the skin.
①.Eliminating freckles and removing acne: Wild snow chrysanthemum has a relatively strong effect on eliminating freckles and removing acne.
②.Whitening and beauty: Wild snow chrysanthemum is rich in amino acids, amino acids have strong antioxidant and physiological activity, and are scavenger of free radicals in the human body. Snow Chrysanthemum can help the skin to remove the garbage in the pores and bring the toxins out of the skin, to achieve the effect of whitening and beauty.
③.Moisturize the skin: The amino acid components in Snow Chrysanthemum can block lipid peroxidation and remove active enzymes.
Administration of Calliopsis (Snow Chrysanthemum):
Administration Guide of Calliopsis (Snow Chrysanthemum)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
Dosage: for beauty and relieving insomnia, brew 1~2 grams a day, especially for those who often suffer from insomnia. To prevent three-high diseases (hypertension or high blood pressure, hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, hyperlipemia or high blood cholesterol levels), brew 2~4 grams a day to prevent. For three-high patients: brew 4~6 grams per day according to the personal condition of three-high levels. Drinking in the morning and evening can effectively adjust the three-high levels.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Studies in animal models, including acute toxicity, long-term toxicity, and genotoxicity have demonstrated that Snow Chrysanthemum is a non-toxic herb, especially for its water-soluble parts.
Snow chrysanthemum is best preserved in a vacuum. The best storage containers are tin bottles, porcelain jars, and colored glass bottles. Secondly, iron cans, wooden boxes, bamboo boxes, etc. should be used, among which bamboo boxes should not be used in the dry north. Plastic bags and cartons are the worst. The container for storing tea should be dry, clean and free from peculiar smells.
URL QR code:
1.Introduction of Calliopsis:Golden Coreopsis, Tick-seed, or Snow Chrysanthemum.