Introduction of Celery Seed:celery fruit or smallage fruit.
✵The article gives records of the herb Celery Seed, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Apium graveolens L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Celery Seed, nutritional values, history story of celery, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Celery Seed(celery fruit).
English Name: Celery Seed.
Latin Name: Apium graveolens L.
Common Names: Apium, celery fruit, marsh parsley, smallage fruit, wild celery.
Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sweet, pungent, slightly bitter.
Brief introduction: Apium graveolens is a member of the Apiaceae family and a relative of dill and carrots, celery is one of the oldest vegetables ever used in recorded history, celery seed was used traditionally as a seasoning and medicine, for fluid retention, colds, arthritis, indigestion, liver disease.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Celery Seed as the dried seeds of the species (1). Apium graveolens L. It is a plant species of the Apium genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family). The dried seed is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Apium graveolens L.
Botanical description: Apium graveolens is an annual or biennial plant, glabrous and clean, with a strong aroma. The stem is cylindrical, grows up to 0.7~1 meter high, branched at the upper part, with longitudinal edges and nodes. The root leaves are clustered, with odd-pinnate compound leaves, obovate to oblong, with stalks. The stalks are 36~45 cm long, and there are 2~3 pairs of leaflets. The petiole at the base is the longest, and the shorter it goes up. The leaflets are about 5 cm long and wide, 3-lobed. The lobes are triangular or pentagonal, sometimes 3-lobed at the tip, and the edges have thick teeth. Cauline leaves divide into 3 leaflets.
Compound umbels are lateral or terminal; No involucre and small involucre; Umbrella 7~16; More than 20 pedicels: flowers are small, bisexual, calyx teeth are inconspicuous; Petals 5, white, broadly ovate, apex recurved; 5 stamens, anthers are small, ovate; 1 pistil, the ovary is inferior, 2-locule, styles 2, lobed.
The cremocarp is nearly round to oval, the schizocarp is oval, about 1.2 mm long, and has five obvious rib lines. The rib groove contains one oil groove, the joint surface of the dichotomous fruit is nearly flat, and there are also two oil grooves. The schizocarp has one seed. Its flowering period is April to July, the fruiting period is in June.
Ecological environment: Apium graveolens is native to the marshes along the Mediterranean coast, it has been widely cultivated all over the world. Celery cultivation in China began in the Han dynasty and has a history of more than 2,000 years. At first, it was only planted as an ornamental plant, and then it was cultivated as a vegetable. After constant cultivation, it formed a slender petiole celery cultivar, namely Chinese celery, it is widely distributed in all areas of China.
Growth characteristics: Apium graveolens prefers a cold and humid climate, which is a semi-cold-tolerant vegetable, tolerant drying and short-term low temperature below zero °C (Celsius, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit), it is not tolerant of high temperature. The lowest germination temperature of seeds is 4 °C (Celsius, or 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit), the optimum temperature is 15~20 °C (Celsius, or 59~68 degrees Fahrenheit), the germination is delayed below 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), but hardly germinates above 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit), and the seedlings can bear the low temperature of -5 ~-7 °C (Celsius, or 23~19.4 degrees Fahrenheit).
Characters of herbs: Celery seed is the fruit of Apium graveolons, celery herb is the fresh or dried above-ground parts of the plant, and celery root is the plant's fresh or dried underground parts.
Nutritional values: According to modern nutritional analysis, every 100 grams of celery contains 2.2 grams of protein, 0.3 grams of fat, 1.9 grams of sugar, 160 mg of calcium, 61 mg of phosphorus, 8.5 mg of iron, carotene, and other B vitamins. Celery is rich in nutrition, containing more calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, vitamin P, vitamin C, etc. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time.
History story of celery: Apium graveolens is a member of the Apiaceae family and a relative of dill and carrots. The genus name is derived from the Latin, apis, meaning bee, as bees are attracted to its small white flowers. The species name gravelones means "heavily scented." The English word celery is from the Latin "celer", meaning swift, as celery is considered a fast-acting remedy. It is believed to be native to the Mediterranean region, Ancient Greeks on the Isthmus of Corinth around 450 B.C. regularly crowned their athletes with celery leaves to honor them. In the 17th century, celery was hybridized to be less bitter.
Cultivated forms of celery all descend from the wild-type, Apium graveolens, growing in saline areas near the coastline in Europe and Western Asia. Celery has long, thick and crisp stalks. Celery root has a swollen, beet-like root with a mild taste. It is used chiefly for flavoring foods, vegetable juices, etc., although small quantities are also used in perfumery.
Celery is one of the oldest vegetables ever used in recorded history. The ancient Egyptians were known to gather wild celery from marshy seaside areas for food. Celery is a plant of many uses and little waste; the leaves and dried seeds make good seasoning; the outer ribs are best cooked, and the inner ribs may be consumed raw because they are good for the heart.
The variety most commonly available is the light-green to medium-green Pascal celery. Stalks are firm and solid with a maximum of green leaves. They usually have a glossy surface and snap easily. As a member of the distinguished parsley family, it enjoys some of the same reputable medical claims often attributed to the former herb.
Celery seed increases urine production in animal studies, celery oil and celery juice could lower blood pressure in animals and humans, celery saps could significantly reduce certain lipid levels in lab rats, celery oil component phthalides have sedative and anticonvulsant properties, the component phthalides also has antitumor and anti-cancer properties in animal studies, celery seed alcohol extract was found have some significant liver-protectant property in rats, celery seed preparations could reduce blood sugar levels, so it is helpful for diabetes suffers, celery stem extract was found has significant anti-inflammatory activity in animals.
Medicinal efficacy: Celery seed was used traditionally as a seasoning and medicine, for fluid retention, colds, arthritis, indigestion, and liver disease. In folk medicine, celery and its preparations are used as a diuretic, for regulating the bowels, glandular stimulation, rheumatic complaints, gout, gallstones, kidney stones, as a prophylactic for nervous agitation, loss of appetite and exhaustion, and cough. Today herbalists recommend celery seed as a diuretic to eliminate excessive water, bladder and kidney disorders, as a tonic for nervous restlessness, anti-inflammatory for rheumatic problems and gout, also for diabetes, stomach upset, obesity, delayed menstruation, high blood pressure, it is used in a lot of anti-inflammatory remedies. Celery preparations are used in homeopathy for ailments of the ovaries and rheumatism.
Administration of Celery Seed (celery fruit):
Administration Guide of Celery Seed (celery fruit)
Herbal classic books:
Celery seeds are used in infusions and tinctures, an infusion is prepared using 1 to 2 teaspoons of freshly crushed seeds per cup of water, or pouring boiling water on 1 gram of the squeezed herb and strain after 5 to 10 minutes, the tincture is taken in dosages a half to 1 teaspoon up to three times daily. The daily dosage of the seeds is 1.2 to 4 grams and as an infusion, 1 gram. Homeopathic dosage is 5 to 10 drops, 1 tablet, or 5 to 10 globules 1 to 3 times daily, or 1 ml injection solution twice-weekly sc. Celery seed should be kept tightly sealed, away from light and moisture.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Celery seeds and other parts of the celery plant are safe to consume, the FDA classifies celery and celery seeds as safe for food use, and there are allergic reactions in some cases, reported are hives, swelling, breathing trouble, and anaphylaxis. Skin contact with the celery plant might lead to allergic reactions, its component bergapten in celery can cause sun sensitivity, skin reaction, or serious phytotoxic burns may happen when exposed to intensive PUVA therapy (photochemotherapy is a type of ultraviolet radiation treatment used for severe skin diseases) or sunshine after large amounts of celery root are taken.
Celery herb, seed, or root should not be used during pregnancy. It should not be used for individuals with a kidney infection, because its volatile oil has some kidney-irritating effects. The celery seed for cultivation should not be used as herbs. Large amounts of celery oil may lead to toxic reactions, such as central nervous system depression.
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1.Introduction of Celery Seed:celery fruit or smallage fruit.