Introduction of Chamomile:Roman chamomile or Chamomilla.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chamomile, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Chamaemelum nobile L., ②.Matricaria chamomilla L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Chamomile, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Chamomile(Roman chamomile).

Chamaemelum nobile:flowers English Name: Chamomile.
 Latin Name: Matricaria chamomilla L.,also referred to as Matricaria recutita and Chamomilla recutita(L.)Rauschert.
 Common Names: Roman chamomile, English chamomile, German chamomile.
 Property and flavor: cool in nature, fragrant, tastes slight bitter.

 Brief introduction: A well-known herbal remedy with a long history of use, chamomile is still much used in modern herbalism and also as the source of essential oil. It is both harvested from the wild and also cultivated in moderate quantities.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Chamomile as the dried fruit of the species (1).Chamaemelum nobile L., or (2).Matricaria chamomilla L., It is a plant species of the Matricaria genus, the Asteraceae family (composite, daisy family). The flower heads and volatile oil are used medicinally. These two commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Chamaemelum nobile L.

 Chamaemelum nobile:flowering plants Botanical description: Chamaemelum nobile, commonly known as chamomile, Roman chamomile, English chamomile, garden chamomile, ground apple, low chamomile, mother's daisy, or whig plant. Chamaemelum nobile is an evergreen perennial plant, it grows up to 15~30 cm high. Chamaemelum nobile is a perennial plant, it has dark green, aromatic leaves, and small, white, flowers all summer. It has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous.

 The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 20~30 cm above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time in the Northern Hemisphere is June and July, or from early summer to late summer, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity, and herbaceous.

 Although the plant is often confused with German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), its morphology, properties, and chemical composition are markedly different.

 Chamaemelum nobile:flowers Ecological environment: Chamaemelum nobile is native to Western Europe, including Britain, from Belgium south to North Africa and the Azores. It grows in sandy commons, pastures, and grassy roadsides. Chamaemelum nobile is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and South America.

 Growth characteristics: Chamaemelum nobile tolerates most well-drained soils, preferring a dry sandy soil and a sunny position, it tolerates partial shade, established plants are drought-tolerant, it can be grown in the grass, tolerates a pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) in the range of 6.8~8, it is easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade.

(2).Matricaria chamomilla L.

 Matricaria chamomilla:flowering plant Botanical description: Matricaria chamomilla is an annual or perennial herb, it is also known as Matricaria recutita L., synonyms are Chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita (correct name according to the Flora Europaea), Matricaria chamomilla, and Matricaria suaveolens. The plant is short, and grows up to about 15~40 cm high, or 50~60 cm high. Stems are upright and branched, smooth and glabrous. Leaves are alternate, pinnately divided 2~3 times, lobes are short and without a petiole. The flower heads are 1.2~2.5 cm in diameter, arranged in an umbrella shape, attached to branches or axils, and pedicellate. The involucre of flowers is hemispherical, and the bracts have two layers with membranous edges. A layer of white ligulate flower on the periphery of inflorescence, female, with truncated or slightly concave apex, and the corolla droops after blooming; The inner layer is yellow tubular flowers, numerous, bisexual, with 4-5 toothed flowers at the apex of the corolla; 5 stamens, anther base is blunt, pistil stigma is 2-lobed; has a sweet and fragrant odor, taste fruity and slightly bitter. The fruit length is 1~1.5 mm, it is gray, and the 1000-grain weight of seeds is 0.02~0.03 gram.

 Ecological environment: Matricaria chamomilla is native to Europe, including Britain, east to West Asia, and the Himalayas, wild plant is found in Europe, North America, and northern Africa, it usually grows near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia. It is widely introduced in temperate North America and Australia. As the seeds need open soil to survive, it often grows near roads, around landfills, and in cultivated fields as a weed.

 Growth characteristics: Matricaria chamomilla grows in sandy or loamy arable soils in Britain, it is also found on saline steppes in Europe, a weedy species, preferring sunny sites (slightly shaded sites are tolerated) and found on wasteland, roadsides, and fields, an easily grown plant, it succeeds in any well-drained soil in a sunny position and can tolerate light shade. It is a plant of the temperate zone, where it can be found wild as far north as latitude 64 °N. It has become naturalized in higher areas of the tropics, such as Ecuador at over 3,000 meters, and is also cultivated at lower elevations in some areas, such as Java.

 chamomile herb Characters of herbs: The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of materials. A well-known herbal remedy with a long history of use, camomile is still much used in modern herbalism and also as the source of essential oil. It is both harvested from the wild and also cultivated in moderate quantities.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory property; ②.antibacterial; ③.stimulate immune system; etc.

 The herb chamomile has antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties, its components alpha-bisabolol, flavonoids, and chamazulene are found to have anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and anti-allergic properties, which explains the herb's traditional use as a calming sedative, gastrointestinal spasms, inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Chamomile also inhibits staphylococcus aureus and fungi such as Candida albicans, so it helps prevent infections and speed wound healing. Chamomile polysaccharides stimulate the immune system. The herb also has an anti-infective effect, antioxidant effect and chamomile can inhibit lipid peroxidation, antineoplastic effect, anxiolytic effect, dermatological effect, gastrointestinal effect, sedative effect, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: The herb chamomile was traditionally used as a soothing and relaxing warm drink to treat digestive upset, stomach cramps, gas, stimulate digestion, calm anxiety or stress, encourage sleep, reduce fever, control ulcers, menstrual cramps, and other spasms, relieve infections from a minor illness, rheumatic pain. Today it is recommended for encouraging wounds, and reducing inflammation in skin irritations such as eczema and hemorrhoids, it is one of America's most popular herbal tea, essential oil is used in many hair risines, bath oils, skin creams, and other cosmetics, as a flavoring in foods and drinks. In Europe, the herb chamomile is approved for cough and bronchitis, fevers and colds, inflammation of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, the tendency to infection, wounds and burns, etc. In folk medicine, the herb is used internally for diarrhea and flatulence, and externally for furuncles, hemorrhoids, abscesses, and acne. Its homeopathic uses are for inflammation and cramps in the gastrointestinal tract, teething symptoms, severe pain, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, and dysmenorrhea.

 Administration of Chamomile: 
Reference: Administration Guide of Chamomile
Herbal classic books: A tea is made using 2 to 3 teaspoons of dried flowers per cup of water and is used as a compress as well as a beverage. The tincture is taken in dosages of a half to 1 teaspoon up to three times per day. An infusion for internal use is prepared by pouring 150 ml boiling water over 3 grams of chamomile, covering for 5 to 10 minutes, and straining. An internal single dose is approximately 3 grams as an infusion.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The FDA has placed chamomile on its list of herbs generally considered safe for food use, chamomile is widely considered safe to use in typically recommended amounts, internally or externally. The herb chamomile should be avoided if you are allergic to other members of the aster family, but there are only about five cases of allergy to chamomile plants worldwide since late of the 19th century that are directly attributed to Matricaria recutita, take large amounts of the dried flowers may cause vomiting. The herb should not be used during pregnancy, the herb chamomile should not be taken by anyone with a known allergy to its components or to other members of the Compositae family (arnica, yarrow, feverfew, tansy, artemesia), or if they have a history of atopic hay fever or asthma.

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