✵The article gives records of the herb Cowslip, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Primula veris L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Cowslip, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Cowslip.
Latin Name: Primula veris L.
Common Names: cowslip, fairy cup, keyflower, key of heaven, paigle, primrose, mayflower, oxlip, peagles, butter rose, fairy caps, petty mulleins, crewel, palsywort, plumrocks.
Property and flavor:
Brief introduction: Cowslip is native to Europe but now grows in many parts of the world, it has sweet-smelling, golden-yellow flowers that grow in clusters.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Cowslip as the roots and flowers of the species (1). Primula veris L. It is a plant species of the Primula genus, the Primulaceae family (primrose family). The roots and flowers are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Primula veris L.
Botanical description: Primula veris is a perennial herbaceous plant, the green plant parts are covered in 2 mm long segmented hairs. The leaves are revolute in the bud, wrinkled, ovate, or ovate-oblong, and are rounded at the base, leaves narrow quickly to the winded stems, 3 to 6 cm long during the flowering season, but grow larger later, the upper surface of the leaf is glabrous.
Inflorescences or flowers are solitary, flowers are in richly blossomed umbels with a short peduncle, the flowers are turned to one side and grow in clusters from the center of the leaf rosette. The calyx is cylindrical and appressed with a green margin. The remaining part of the calyx is yellow and is 12 to 15 cm long. The corolla is odorless, usually sulfur yellow, and has a tube with 5 triangular, orange spots. The fruit is an oval capsule with 1.5 to 2.5 mm long brown, warty seeds. The flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from May to July.
Ecological environment: Primula veris is native to Central Europe and the Southern European mountain areas, it grows widely in areas of temperate Asia.
Growth characteristics: Primula veris grows in grassy places, fields, and woods with calcareous soils, it grows well in the spring meadow, and prefers a medium to heavy moisture-retentive humus-rich loam in a cool position with light to medium shade.
Characters of herbs: Cowslip flower is the dried, whole flowers with calyx of Primula veris as well as its preparations. Cowslip root is the dried rhizome with roots of Primula veris. Cowslip root is harvested at best in the third year of growth.
The herb cowslip has astringent properties for its tannin content, astringents aid skin healing by constricting tissue and reducing oozing and bleeding if it is present, so the herb is used in skin creams. The saponins of the cowslip root show slight anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antigranulation (antiscar-formation and antiwound-healing) in studies, the flavonoids show antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Medicinal efficacy: The cowslip flower tea is appreciated in Europe as a mild sedative for anxiety-related sleeplessness, restlessness, nervous excitability, and headache. The flowers and roots are recommended by herbalists as an expectorant for clearing congestion related to colds, coughs, bronchitis, and other bronchopulmonary disorders. The flowers are used for painkilling, laxative, heart tonic, and a mild diuretic, the root has been used traditionally to treat asthma, whooping cough, neuralgia, and other nerve-related problems, gout. The flower is used in skin-cleansing lotion and is popular in some places. In Europe, cowslip flower and cowslip root are approved for cough and bronchitis, in folk medicine, cowslip flower is used internally for catarrh of the respiratory tract, for insomnia, anxiety, cardiac tonic for feelings of dizziness and cardiac insufficiency, as a nerve tonic for shaking limbs, headaches, and neuralgia. Cowslip root is used for whooping cough, asthma, gout, rheumatic arthritis, bladder and kidney disease, migraine, dizziness, stomach cramps, scurvy, and neuralgia. Externally, cowslip root is used for headaches and skin impurities. In homeopathy, cowslip is used to treat headaches and skin rashes.
Administration of Cowslip (keyflower):
Administration Guide of Cowslip (keyflower)
Herbal classic books:
The average daily dose of the dried flowers is 3 grams, and the single dose is 1 gram of the herb. Teas are recommended 1 cup several times a day, as a bronchial tea, possibly sweetened with honey. Infusion of the flower is recomended 1~2 grams, three times a day. The liquid extract is taken in doses of 1~2 ml(milliliters) three times a day.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The saponins of the root preparations may irritate the stomach and intestines. Both stomachs upset and nausea develop in some people. Contact dermatitis with skin reddening and blistering has also occurred after direct skin contact with the flowers. Some people are allergic to the stamens of this plant.