Introduction of Fruit Acids:tartaric acid, citric acid, and malic acid.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fruit Acids, its English name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source plant species, ①.tartaric acid, ②.citric acid, ③.malic acid, a brief introduction of these fruit acids, the features of the herb Fruit Acids, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fruit Acids(tartaric acid,citric acid,malic acid).

Fruit Acids and fruits English Name: Fruit Acids.
 Latin Name: 
 Common Names: Individual acids:citric acid, gluconic acid, gluconolactone, glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid.
 Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sour.

 Brief introduction: Fruit acids, or alpha-hydroxy acids, are derived from fruits such as tartaric acid from grapes, citric acid from citrus fruits oranges and lemons, and malic acid from apples. A particular chemical structure, a hydroxyl group at the alpha-carbon position can be identified in all of these naturally occurring acids and accounts for their similar medicinal properties.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined Fruit Acids mainly from various natural fruits, citrus fruits, grapes, apples, etc.

(1).Tartaric acid.

 grape is a natural source of tartaric acid Introduction: Tartaric acid was first discovered by Swedish chemist Karl William Schiele (Carl Wilhelm Scheele, 1742~1786, Swedish chemist who independently discovered oxygen, chlorine, and manganese.) in the year 1769. L-tartaric acid is widely found in fruits, especially grapes. The main or even the only source of L-tartaric acid is still natural fruits. L-tartaric acid can be prepared by acidification of tartar, a by-product of the wine industry. Italy is the largest producer of L-tartaric acid in the world, which is related to the scale of the wine industry in the country.

(2).Citric acid.

 citrus fruits are natural source of citric acid Introduction: Many kinds of fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, contain a lot of citric acid. Lemon and lime contain a lot of citric acid, which can reach 8% after drying. In citrus fruits, the content of citric acid is between 0.005 mol/L in orange and grape, to 0.30 mol/L in lemon and lime. This content varies with the growth of different cultivated species and plants. In 1784, C.W. Scheler first extracted citric acid from citrus. He made citric acid by adding lime milk to fruit juice to form calcium citrate precipitate. Natural citric acid was originally produced in California of USA (the United States of America), Italy, and the West Indies. In 1952, Myers Laboratory in USA adopted submerged fermentation to produce citric acid on a large scale. Submerged fermentation has become the main method of citric acid production. Citric acid is a kind of fruit acid, and its main function is to speed up cutin renewal. It is often used in lotions, creams, shampoos, whitening products, anti-aging products, acne products, etc. The renewal of cutin helps to peel off melanin in skin, narrow pores, and dissolve blackheads. Citric acid can prevent and eliminate skin pigmentation.

(3).Malic acid.

 apple is a natural source of malic acid Introduction: The natural malic acid is L-shaped, and it exists in almost all fruits, especially in kernel fruits. L-malic acid is an important component of natural fruit juice. Its acidity is 20% stronger than that of citric acid, but it has a soft taste, special fragrance, no harm to the oral cavity and teeth, and metabolism is conducive to amino acid absorption and no accumulation of fat. It is a new generation of food sour agents, and it has been replacing citric acid in food for the elderly and children since 2013. L-malic acid is an essential organic acid for the human body, and it is also an ideal food additive with low calories. When 50% L-malic acid and 20% citric acid are used together, they can present a strong natural fruit flavor.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.skin care; ②.moisturizing properties; ③.reducing acne lesion; ④.exfoliant effect; etc.

 Fruit acids play an important role in conventional medicine for treating various skin conditions. A fruit acid called gluconolactone is effective in reducing the total number of acne lesions, its efficacy is the same as benzoyl peroxide 5% lotion. The gluconolactone works by loosening the cohesion of certain cells, thereby increasing the rate at which cells slough off from the skin. 2 to 5 percent lactic acid is commonly used in treating dry skin, it has moisturizing properties and thickens the top skin layers. As fruit acids have an exfoliant effect, it is used by cosmetic companies for antiaging, antiwrinkle, and moisturizing properties, to moisturize the skin and remove dead skin cell layers, to fine wrinkles.

 Medicinal efficacy: High-concentration fruit-acid products are used by dermatologists and professionals to debride dead skin cells associated with scars and age spots, moisturize top skin layers, and in treating acne. Used by cosmetic companies in skin creams and other products to rejuvenate skin and counter the effects of aging, improve skin texture and tone, eliminate age spots, moisturize the skin, etc.

 Administration of Fruit Acids (tartaric acid,citric acid,malic acid): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fruit Acids (tartaric acid,citric acid,malic acid)
Herbal classic books: To use commercial products containing fruit acids, follow the package instructions. Discontinue use if irritation develops.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Fruit acids can severely irritate the skin if applied in high concentrations, possibly causing redness and burning among other reactions. Pay attention and not left the product on the skin for longer than recommended, and process very carefully if you have very sensitive or already irritated skin. Take particular care in applying any of these substances to sensitive areas such as the eyes.

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