Introduction of Grape Seed Extract:Grape seed proanthocyanidins and polyphenols.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Grape Seed Extract, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Vitis vinifera L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Grape Seed Extract, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Grape Seed Extract(PCOs and Polyphenols).

purple grapes in a cluster grow on fruiting branch of Vitis vinifera English Name: Grape Seed Extract.
 Latin Name: Vitis vinifera L. and Vitus coignetiae.
 Common Names: Muskat, PCOs, Grape seed proanthocyanidins
 Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes puckery.

 Brief introduction: The ground seeds of the common red grapes processed for wine production are the source of this extract. Sometimes the skin is used as well. Grape seed is the seed of grape, which is the leftover of the winery. After drying in the sun, the grape skin and stalk are separated. Grape seeds are rich in amino acids, vitamins, minerals, etc., and have effects on health care and beauty.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Grape Seed Extract as the seed of the species (1).Vitis vinifera L. It is a plant species of the Vitis genus, the Vitaceae family (grape family). The fruit seeds are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Vitis vinifera L.

 Vitis vinifera:fruiting tree and dark blue grapes hanging on branch Botanical description: Vitis vinifera is woody vines. Branchlets are cylindrical, longitudinally ribbed, glabrous, or sparsely pilose. Tendrils are bifurcated, interrupted every 2 nodes, and opposite to leaves. The leaves are oval or orbicular, obviously 3 to 5 lobes or middle-lobed, 7~18 cm long, and 6~16 cm wide. The tips of the middle lobes are sharp, and the lobes are often close together. The base is constricted, and the fissures are narrow or sometimes wide. The base is deeply cordate, the base is concave into a circle, and the two sides are close together. There are 22~27 serrations at the edges, and the teeth are deep, thick, and irregular. There are 5 primary veins, 4~5 pairs of lateral veins in the midvein, and the reticular veins are not obviously prominent; the petiole is 4~9 cm long, almost glabrous; Stipules fall early.

 Panicles are dense or scattered, flowery, opposite to leaves, well-branched at the base, 10~20 cm long, the peduncle is 2~4 cm long, glabrate or sparsely spidery hairs; Pedicel is 1.5~2.5 mm long, glabrous; Buds are obovoid, 2~3 mm high, and the tip is orbicular (subrotund); Calyx is shallow dish-shaped, with wavy edges and glabrous outside; 5 petals are stuck off in a hat shape; Stamens 5, filaments are filiform, 0.6~1 mm long, yellow anthers, ovoid, 0.4~0.8 mm long, obviously short and aborted or completely degenerated in female flowers; Disk is developed, 5-lobed; Pistil 1, completely degenerated in male flowers, the ovary is oval, style is short, stigma is enlarged.

 The fruit is spherical or oval, 1.5~2 cm in diameter; The seed is oval, with a short round top and a short beak at the base. The navel of the seed is oval in the middle of the back of the seed, the ridge of the seed is slightly protruding, the ridge in the ventral surface is protruding, and the hollows on both sides are wide and furrowed, reaching up to 1/4 of the seed. Its flowering period is from April to May and fruiting from August to September.

 two greenish grapes with two small brown seeds Ecological environment: Grapes are native to Western Asia and Southern Europe, it is cultivated all over the world. About 95% of grapes around the world are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. They are famous fruits, eaten raw or made with raisins, and made into wine.

 Growth characteristics: The minimum temperature required for grape growth is about 12~15 °C (Celsius, or 53.6~ 59 degrees Fahrenheit), the minimum ground temperature is about 10~13 °C (Celsius, or 50~55.4 degrees Fahrenheit), the optimum temperature for flowering is about 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit), and the optimum temperature for fruit expansion is 20℃~30 °C (Celsius, or 68~86 degrees Fahrenheit). If the temperature difference between day and night is large, the coloring and sugar content are good. Although grapes can be cultivated in all kinds of soil, loam and fine sandy loam are the best.

 grapes and grape juice drinks Pharmacological actions: ①.antioxidants and antitumor effect; ②.protect blood vessels and skin; ③.antiatherosclerotic effects; ④.cardioprotective effects; ⑤.collagen stabilization; ⑥.cytotoxic effect and cytoprotective effect; ⑦.hepatoprotective effect; ⑧.vascular effects and other effects.

 Grape seed contains various procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs) or proanthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins are condensed tannins, these substances are effective antioxidants, and protect against atherosclerosis and other chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer. Procyanidins are highly effective scavengers of hydrophilic and lipophilic radicals. The anti-lipoperoxidant activity is remarkable and dose-dependent, it also protects liposomal membranes from lipid peroxidation through radical scavenging action. Proanthocyanidins against free radicals and oxidative stress, its antitumor promoting activity is due to strong antioxidant effects. The antioxidant effect of proanthocyanidin is more potent compared to vitamin C and vitamin E succinate, grape seed extract and proanthocyanidins trapped free radicals and inhibited their production, delaying the onset of lipid peroxidation, inhibiting the damaging effects of the enzymes that can degrade connective tissue structure.

 grape proanthocyanidins and mechanism of antioxidation Proanthocyanidins inhibit the enzymes responsible for breaking down the chemical substances that compose the supporting structure around blood vessels, including collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, etc. The property maintains the integrity of the blood vessels and even of skin.

 Proanthocyanidin decreases the number of LDL-positive macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by free radicals is associated with the initiation of atherosclerosis.

 Dietary polyphenols from Grapes have cardio-protective properties, it is due to the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on LDL (low-density lipoproteins) oxidation, altering hepatic cholesterol absorption, effects on triglyceride assembly and secretion, and changes in the processing of lipoproteins in plasma.

 Procyanidolic oligomers inhibit the activities of some proteolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of the main structural components of the extra-vascular matrix, collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid.

 Grape seed extract exhibited cytotoxicity toward some cancer cells, it has in vitro effects that may ameliorate the toxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents, protect against radiation damage to spermatogonial cells in the testes, attenuate acetaminophen-induced hepatic DNA damage, apoptotic cell death, and influence gene expression.

 Proanthocyanidin significantly attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatic DNA damage, and apoptotic and necrotic cell death of liver cells.

 Polymeric phenolic compounds in grape seed extract have effects on vascular tone in vitro, it can relieve ocular stress, improve resistance to glare, recovery from exposure to bright light, night vision, and ocular stress caused by activity in front of a computer screen can be significantly relieved in 90 days with grape seed extract 300 mg daily, eye strain symptom is relieved with significantly improve objective. Procyanidins have an ischemia preventive effect, its maintenance of microvascular injury through the scavenger effect of reactive oxygen species. Proanthocyanidins from Grape seeds promote the proliferation of hair follicle cells, and possess hair-cycle converting activity from the telogen phase to the anagen phase. The grape seed extract is beneficial in treating symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

 red grapes, a bottle and a cup of red wine Medicinal efficacy: The grape seed extract is recommended by dietary supplement manufacturers as an antioxidant, antioxidants are said to control the formation of free radicals, free radicals are dangerous substances in the body, they can damage cells through oxidation and in some cases even contribute to cancer cell formation. Its components procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs) or proanthocyanidins can protect against tumor formation, prevent aging, improve circulation to the benefit of peripheral vascular diseases, reduce inflammation, control diabetes, aid wound healing, treat retinopathy, fight the breakdown of collagen which can occur with aging and a number of inflammatory collagen diseases.

 In folk medicine, grape preparations are used in venous diseases and blood circulation disorders.

 Administration of Grape Seed Extract (PCOs and Polyphenols): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Grape Seed Extract (PCOs and Polyphenols)
Herbal classic books: Capsules or tablets of 75~300 mg are taken daily for up to three weeks, followed by a maintenance dose of 40~80 mg per day. Grape seed extract has been used for preventive therapy with 50 mg daily and treatment doses of 150~600 mg daily in divided doses.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: There are no reports of significant adverse reactions to grape seed extract.




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