✵The article gives records of the herb Gymnema, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Gymnema, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Gymnema.
Latin Name: Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. sometimes referred to as Asclepias geminata Roxb., Periploca sylvestris Willd, and Gymnema melicida Egd.
Common Names: Gurmar, merasingi, meshashringi.
Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter.
Brief introduction: Gymnema sylvestre is a tropical plant of the milkweed family, it is now distributed worldwide. The leaves and occasionally the stem is used medicinally.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Gymnema as the leaves of the species (1).Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. It is a plant species of the Gymnema R. Br. genus, the Asclepiadaceae family(Asclepiadoideae, milkweed subfamily). The dried leaves are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.
Botanical description: Gymnema Sylvestre is a perennial tropical woody vine, the whole plant has milk; The stem is grayish brown, with lenticels, and the young branches are puberulent. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is 3~10 mm long, pubescent, apex with tufted glands; Leaves are obovate or ovoid-oblong, 3~8 cm long and 1.5~4 cm wide, only veins are slightly hairy; Lateral veins 4~5 pairs, curved arch ascending.
Cymes are cymose-shaped, axillary; Pedicels are pubescent; Calyx segments 5, lobes are ciliated, the inner base has 5 glands; Corolla is slightly covered to the right; Paracorolla inserted below the lobes of the corolla, thick and hard band; Stamens 5, inserted at the base of corolla tube; Anthers with the membrane at apex; Pollen block 1 per room, oblong and erect; Stigma extends out of anther. Follicles are horn-shaped, 5~9 cm long, 2 cm wide at the base, tapered at the apex, and swollen at the base.
Seeds are ovate, the apex is whorled with white silky hairs, about 3.5 cm long. The plant's flowering period is from May to September, fruiting from October to January of the following year.
Ecological environment: Gymnema sylvestre grows on hillsides or bushes, it spread in South Asia, Indonesia, Australia and tropical Africa, South China.
Pharmacological actions: ①.lower blood sugar levels; ②.appetite-suppressant; ③.suppression of sweet taste; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.antibacterial activity and antiviral activity;etc.
Gymnema can lower blood sugar levels. Its effects on lowering blood sugar levels are proved both in lab animals with diabetes experiments and in human insulin-dependent diabetes experiments. Gymnema has an appetite-suppressant effect. Gymnema extract interferes with the ability of the taste buds to taste sweet and bitter flavors (such as sugar or quinine), but the ability to taste sour, astringent, or pungent substances is maintained. Gymnema has been demonstrated with anti-inflammatory properties. An alcoholic extract of dried leaves exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Gymnemic acids A and B have demonstrated antiviral activity against the influenza virus.
Medicinal efficacy: Gymnema was traditionally used for honey urine (diabetes) and other blood sugar disorders, to prevent diabetes in individuals at high risk for the disorder or for managing metabolic control in general.
Administration of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre):
Administration Guide of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
In TCM works, the herb is recommended internally as water decoction, 15~30 grams, externally proper amount fresh herb, mashed and apply a coating.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Gymnema is relatively safe and harmless on the basis of years of use in various countries, with no reports of severe adverse reactions.
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1.Introduction of Gymnema:Gurmar or Gymnema leaves.