Introduction of Onion:Allium cepa or Common Onion.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Onion, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Allium cepa L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Onion, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Onion(Allium cepa).

Onion English Name: Onion.
 Latin Name: Allium cepa L.
 Property and flavor: specific aromatic, pungent and hot.

 Brief introduction: The common onion is cultivated worldwide. There are many forms and varieties of this aromatic vegetable, a member of the lily family, although the most common are the white, yellow, and red globe onions. Greenish-white flowers grow at the end of a long, cylindrical hollow stem that emerges from the bulb. The fleshy bulb is used medicinally.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Onion as the fleshy bulb of the species (1).Allium cepa L. It is a plant species of the Allium genus, the Liliaceae family (lily family). The fleshy bulb is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Allium cepa L.

 Allium cepa:growing shrubs Botanical description: Allium cepa is a perennial or biennial herb with a strong aroma. Bulbs are large, spherical, or oblate, covered with reddish membranes, most varieties have secondary bulbs. The leaves are cylindrical, hollow; about 25~50 cm long, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, and the part below the middle is the thickest; green, with white powder.

 Scape grows up to 1 meter high, cylindrical, hollow, inflated below the middle part, up to 3 cm in diameter; umbel, spherical, covered with 2 to 3 rolled bracts; flower stalk is no longer than 2.5 cm; perianth 6, arranged in two whorls, pink or nearly white, tepals are obovate-lanceolate, the apex is pointed; stamens 6, protruding, filament base is broad; pistil 1, the ovary is superior, triangular, 3 rooms, style is filiform, stigma is small.

 Capsular fruit is thin-skinned, loculicidal dehiscent, containing many seeds. Seeds are flat, black, and angular. The flowering period is from June to July.

 Allium cepa:growing shrub in field Ecological environment: Allium cepa is native to Central Asia or Western Asia, has many varieties, is widely cultivated all over the world, and has been used as food all over the world.

 Growth characteristics: Onions are highly adaptable to temperature. Seeds and bulbs can germinate slowly at 3~5 °C (Celsius, or 37.4~41 degrees Fahrenheit), and start to accelerate at 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The growth temperature of seedlings is 12~20 °C (Celsius, or 53.6~68 degrees Fahrenheit), leaves are 18~20 °C (Celsius, or 64.4~68 degrees Fahrenheit), bulbs are 20~26 °C (Celsius, or 68~78.8 degrees Fahrenheit), and robust seedlings can withstand 6~7 °C (Celsius, or 42.8~44.6 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature. Bulb expansion requires a higher temperature, bulbs can not expand below 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit) and grows best at 21~27 °C (Celsius, or 69.8~80.6 degrees Fahrenheit). If the temperature is too high, it will grow slowly and go dormant. Onion is a long-day crop, which requires more than 14 hours of long-day light conditions during the bulb expansion stage and the flowering stage of bolting. In high temperature and short sunshine conditions, only leaves will grow, and onions cannot be formed. The suitable light intensity for onions is 20,000 to 40,000 lux. Onions should be supplied with sufficient water during the germination stage, the seedling growth stage, and the bulb expansion stage. However, in the seedling stage and before overwintering, the water should be controlled to prevent the seedlings from growing too long and suffering from freezing damage. Irrigation should be controlled 12 weeks before harvest to enrich bulb tissue, accelerate maturation, and prevent bulb cracking. Onion leaves are drought tolerant and suitable for 60% to 70% humidity. If the air humidity is too high, then the onion is prone to disease. Onion has strong adaptability to the soil, and it is suitable for fertile, loose, and well-ventilated neutral loam soil. Cultivation in sandy loam soil easily obtains a high yield, but clay loam soil has full bulbs, good color, and good storage resistance. The onion root system has a weak ability to absorb the fertilizer, and sufficient nutrient conditions are required for high yield. Every 1,000 kilograms of onion needs to absorb 2 kilograms of nitrogen, 0.8 kilograms of phosphorus, and 2.2 kilograms of potassium from the soil. The application of copper, boron, sulfur, and other trace elements can significantly increase production.

 Allium cepa:purple onions Characters of herbs: Onion is the fresh or dried, thick, and fleshy leaf sheaths and stipules of Allium cepa.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.lowering blood lipid levels, and blood pressure; ②.lowering blood sugar levels; ③.stop tumor growth; ④.relieve asthma and antiallergic effect; ⑤.inhibit bacteria and fungi; ⑥.inhibits thrombocyte aggregation; ⑦.relieve vitamin deficiency;etc.

 Fresh onions and commercial onion extracts may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood lipid levels, reducing blood pressure, and preventing the formation of blood clots.

 Onion contains sulphur compounds that can lower blood sugar levels, valuable in treating diabetes.

 Animal studies found that onion oil and extracts stop tumor growth in rats.

 Allium cepa:purple onions Onion components prevent the chemical and biological steps that lead to the inflammatory reactions seen with asthma.

 Onion liquid extracts fight various bacteria and fungi, explaining its traditional use as an external anti-infective.

 Onion component dimethyl and diphenyl-thiosulphinateboth retard thrombocyte biosynthesis using thrombase stimulation.

 As 100 grams of onion contains vitamin C 10-20 mg, vitamin B1-60 mg, vitamin B2-50 mg, and vitamin A 4 mg, it can be used for vitamin deficiency, especially when vitamin C is deficient.

 Allium cepa:purple onions Medicinal efficacy: Onion is considered a healing agent and as a food, a seasoning, and even a religious ointment. Over the centuries, it has been used to relieve gas, eliminate worms, reduce swelling as a diuretic, counter stubborn coughs and colds by loosening sticky secretions associated with congestion, control asthma, and fight infections, soothe stomach upset. External preparations have antiseptic actions and are valuable for fighting fungal infections, warts, and unwanted blemishes, reducing pain from sprains and bruises, and lessening earaches. Contemporary herbalists also recommend the onion for reducing high cholesterol, preventing blood clots, controlling high blood pressure, and lowering blood sugar in diabetes.

 In Europe, onion is approved for loss of appetite, arteriosclerosis, dyspeptic complaints, fevers and colds, cough and bronchitis, hypertension, the tendency to infection, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, and the common cold. In folk medicine, onion is used internally for whooping cough, asthma, tonsillitis, angina, to stimulate gallbladder functions, digestive disorders with bloating, flatulence, and colic pain, for dehydration, as an aid at the introduction of menstruation. Onion is also used for ascariasis, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, and in the treatment of diabetes. Externally onion is used for insect bites, wounds, light burns, furuncles, warts, and in the after-care of bruises.

 In homeopathy, onion is used for acute inflammatory illnesses, pain syndromes, and flatulent colic.

 Administration of Onion (Allium cepa): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Onion (Allium cepa)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: two to five ounces of fresh onion or its equivalent is ingested daily for its cardiovascular benefits. Onion juice is taken in dosages of 1 teaspoon three to four times per day. Cough syrup is made by mixing the juice with honey. The fresh juice is also applied to minor cuts and athlete's feet. Internally onion tincture 4 to 5 teaspoonfuls daily, onion syrup 4 to 5 tablespoons daily. The average daily dose is 50 grams of fresh onions or 20 grams of dried onion. Onion tincture is prepared with 100 grams minced onions in 300 grams ethanol 70% macerated for 10 days.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Other than the tears you are likely to shed when chopping fresh onions, and the memorable onion odor left on your breath after consuming them, the herb is not associated with any adverse reactions. Contact allergy can occur after handling the plant. The intake of large quantities can lead to stomach complaints.

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