Introduction of Oregano:Mountain Mint or Wild Marjoram.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Oregano, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Origanum vulgare L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Oregano, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Oregano(european oregano).

Oregano leaf English Name: Oregano.
 Latin Name: Origanum vulgare L. Family:Labiatae(Lamiaceae).also Lippia graveolens H.B.K., Lippia palmeri S.Wats., and other Lippia species.Family:Verbenaceae.
 Common Names: Mountain Mint, Origano, Wild Marjoram, Winter Marjoram, Wintersweet. Origanum vulgare:european oregano, origanum, wild marjoram; Lippia species: Mexican marjoram, Mexican oregano, wild sage.
 Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes pungent and slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: Oregano refers to more than twenty species whose flowering tops or leaves bring to mind the characteristic oregano flavor. The dried leaves of the aromatic, flowering Origanum vulgare, a hardy perennial with purplish-red flowers native to Europe, are used, as are the leaves and dried herb of Mexican Lippia graveolens and Lippia palmeri shrubs or trees.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Oregano as the dried leaves and herb of the species (1).Origanum vulgare L. It is a plant species of the origanum genus, the Labiatae family(Lamiaceae, mint family). The dried leaves and herbs are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Origanum vulgare L.

 Origanum vulgare:growing plant Botanical description: Origanum vulgare is a perennial herb, it grows up to 25~60 cm tall, aromatic, stems are upright, or procumbent fibrous root grows near the base, quadrangular, purplish, inverted, or curled pubescent. Leaves are opposite; petiole is 2~7 mm long, pubescent; leaf blade is oval or oblong-oval, 1~4 cm long, 4~15 mm wide, the apex is obtuse or slightly obtuse, the base is cuneate or suborbicular, entire margin or with distant serrations, both surfaces are covered with pubescence and glandular points.

 The inflorescence is a corymboid panicle, open, with many dense flowers, consisting of many oblong small pseudospikes, with imbricate bracts; the calyx is bell-shaped, 3 mm long, covered with small bristles or nearly glabrous outside, calyx teeth 5, triangular; corolla is purple, reddish or white, tubular bell-shaped, 7 mm long, bisexual corolla tube is significantly longer than calyx, female corolla tube is shorter than calyx, outer and inner throat is sparsely pubescent, the upper lip is egg-shape, the apex is 2-lobed, the lower lip is 3-lobed, the middle lobe is larger, lateral lobes are smaller, all are oblong-oval; stamens 4, posterior pair is shorter than upper lip in bisexual flowers, anterior pair is slightly protruding, in bisexual flowers the female flowers are nearly equal in length, with 4-lobed ovary, style is slightly beyond stamens, 2-lobed stigma; the disc is flat-topped.

 Nutlets are ovoid, and brown. The flowering period is from July to September, and the fruiting period is from September to December.

 Origanum vulgare:growing plant Ecological environment: Origanum vulgare grows on hillsides, forests, grasslands, or roadsides at altitudes of 500~3,600 meters, the plant spread throughout Asia, Europe, and some other area.

 Growth characteristics: Origanum vulgare prefers a warm and humid climate and strong adaptability. It is suitable for cultivation in sunny, deep soil, loose and fertile, and well-drained sandy loam. The soil requirements are not strict, and the general soil can be cultivated, but the alkaline soil and sandy soil are not suitable for cultivation.

 Origanum vulgare:growing plant Characters of herbs: Oregano is the above-ground part of Origanum vulgare. It is harvested 5 cm above the ground during the flowering season and dried carefully on the field or under a roofed loft.

 From July to August, cut off the above-ground part before flowering, or uproot the whole plant, shake off the sediment, use fresh or tie it to dry. The whole plant is 23~50 cm long. The roots are small, slightly curved, 2~4 mm in diameter, gray-brown on the surface; the texture is slightly tough, and the cross-section is yellow-white. Stems are square-columnar, purple-brown to light brown, densely piliferous, with obvious nodes, and the internodes are 2~5 cm long. The leaves are opposite, wrinkled brown or deciduous, dark green or yellowish green, the intact ones are ovate or broadly ovate, 1.5~3 cm long, 0.7~1.7 cm wide, the apex is obtuse, the base is rounded, there are brown-black glandular point and fine hairs on both surfaces. Cymes are terminal; bracts are oblong-ovate, yellow-green or yellow-brown, and some with purple apex; the calyx is campanulate, the apex is 5-lobed, and the margin is densely white pilose. Nutlets are flat-ovate, reddish-brown. The herb has a slightly fragrant, slightly bitter taste. The herb of better grade has many leaves and a strong aroma.

 Oregano leaves Pharmacological actions: ①.expectoration; ②.kill fungi and worms, antiparasitic effect, antimicrobial effect; ③.antispasmodic and choleretic properties; ④.anticancer effect; ⑤.antioxidant effect;etc.

 Oreganum species essential oil contains components phenols carvacrol and thymol, as expectoration, to loosen sticky phlegm, so it is easier to cough up;

 Oregano kills fungi and worms: Oregano essential oil inhibits microbes with a minimum inhibitory concentration of lower than 2%: Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aures. Oregano essential oil inhibits Candida albicans growth, its antifungal component carvacrol is about twice as potent as the unfractionated oil. Oregano essential oil was bactericidal against Proteus vulgaris, it also has bacteriostatic activity against Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Hafnia alvei. Oregano also exhibited antifungal properties against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, and Fusarium species. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of Oregano is mainly due to phenolic compounds such as thymol and carvacrol.

 Oregano oil inhibits enteric parasites in adults, studies found it is effective for parasites Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, Ehartmanni, Endolimax nana, B hominis, etc.

 Origanum vulgare has antispasmodic and choleretic properties, stimulating bile, it was used as a digestive aid in relieving the digestive tract muscle and indigestion symptoms such as pain and bloating.

 Oregano component rosemaric acid, rosemaric acid has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties.

 Oregano essential oil is a potent antioxidant, its main antioxidative components are identified as tocopherols, and gamma tocopherol in its non-polar fraction. Rosemaric acid is also one of its antioxidative components.

 Medicinal efficacy: Oregano is typically used for clearing congestion in coughs and other respiratory ailments, to relieve stomach upset and aid digestion, to bring about relaxation and drowsiness, and promote menstruation. It was also used to stimulate the appetite, alleviate toothaches and oral inflammations, induce sweating and eliminate fever, resolve nervous headaches, and relieve aching in arthritic joints. In folk medicine, oregano herb is used for respiratory disorders such as coughs, inflammation of the bronchial mucous membranes, as an expectorant, dyspepsia, painful menstruation, rheumatoid arthritis, scrofulosis, urinary tract disorders, and as a diaphoretic. Topical formulations have been used to treat herpes simplex virus outbreaks.

 Oregano was traditionally used as a culinary spice.

 TCM works record the herb functions to relieve exterior, regulate Qi and remove obstruction, clear summer heat, and remove dampness through diuresis. It is indicated for cold fever, heatstroke, distension and fullness in the chest diaphragm, abdominal pain vomiting and dysentery, jaundice, edema, morbid leukorrhea, infantile malnutrition, measles, itch of the skin, sore and ulcer swelling pain, traumatic injury.

 Administration of Oregano (european oregano): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Oregano (european oregano)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: An infusion prepared using 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried herb per cup of water is drunk up to three times per day. Tea is recommended 1 cup several times a day, the powder is recommended 0.5 to 1 dessertspoon 2 to 3 times daily with food. For internal use, pour 250 ml boiling water over 1 heaped teaspoonful and strain after 10 minutes, the tea can be sweetened with honey. The diluted oil is applied externally to ease toothache and rheumatism. Dilute according to package directions. Store oregano where it is protected from moisture and light. TCM works recommend the herb internally used as water decoction, 3~9 grams, the big dose is up to 15~30 grams, or brewing tea. Externally use proper amount, wash with water decoction, or mashed fresh herb and apply a coating.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: No significant adverse reactions have been associated with the use of oregano in culinary or medicinal concentrations. The FDA has placed oregano on its list of substances "Generally Recognized As Safe"(GRAS) for food consumption. As oregano was traditionally used for promoting menstruation, pregnant women better avoid consuming medicinal concentrations of oregano.

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